"emotional injuries inflicted on them 'by/because of' that 'tragedy/tragic incident'

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New Member
Hey, guys! :)

I'm confused between the usage of by/because of for this particular scenario.

1) ..emotional injuries inflicted on them by the tragedy/tragic incident
2)..emotional injuries inflicted on them because of the tragedy/tragic incident
3)..emotional injuries caused to them by the tragedy/tragic accident
4)..emotional injuries caused to them because of the tragedy/tragic accident

When should we use by/because of? What's the distinguishing line between them?
  • elianecanspeak

    Senior Member
    English - EEUU
    To me using "by" means that the tragic incident itself was the cause of the emotional injuries.

    "Because of" would also include injuries that were incurred through having to deal with other stresses caused by the original event, such as being interviewed by the police, or having to deal with the insurance company, or losing friends that could not deal with the situation, or having people criticize them, ... etc.
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