Emphatic letters

  • ح ص ض ط ظ ق I think are the Arabic letters considered emphatic. They are considered "saturated" or emphatic (heavier or thicker perhaps?) variants of the letters ه س د ت ز ك respectively. I may have left some out, not sure.
     
    The emphatics in Arabic are ط, ظ, ض, and ص.

    The ر is often emphatic (e.g. ربّ), but not always (e.g. برْد), and so is ل (e.g. in the word الله). Some dialects have an emphatic version of ز as a reflex of ظ.

    ح is articulated in a different part of the throat from هـ, and ق is articulated in a different part of the mouth from ك, so they're not really emphatic versions of هـ and ق respectively.
     
    Emphasis refers to the "heaviness" felt on the sounds like ط، ص and the others that the posters above have mentioned.

    In linguistics, the process is actually called pharyngealization or velarization which means that the back of the tongue is pulled either up towards the back of the mouth or back towards the throat. Here's a wiki entry about it. The Arabic term I believe is تفخيم.

    The word "emphasis" is a little meaningless here in English. The reason why it is used is because the cognate sounds in all Semitic languages are not articulated the same way. In Amharic, the equivalent of ط for example, is an ejective which means that you pronounce [t] but you constrict the glottis, which makes the sound sound like it "explodes". The Amharic /T/ is here. So despite the fact that each language may create these sounds differently, they are cognates, so the word "emphatic" allows us to talk about the cognates as a group.

    In some cases, "emphasis" has been lost. So, the equivalents of ط and ت in Modern Hebrew (ת and ט) now sound identical.
     
    ح ص ض ط ظ ق I think are the Arabic letters considered emphatic. They are considered "saturated" or emphatic (heavier or thicker perhaps?) variants of the letters ه س د ت ز ك respectively.
    ظ is emphatic ذ, not emphatic ز.

    ك and ه are not pronounced from the same part as ق and ح respectively, so the latter can not be the emphatic versions of the former.

    ض is wrongly thought by many to be emphatic د, while in reality, it is pronounced nothing like it. It is the most complicated sound to pronounce in Arabic for non-Arabs, and hence why, Arabic was called لغة الضاد, the language of the ḍād. This sound is actually more similar to ظ than it is to د, hence why, early Muslim scholars even gave fatāwá regarding the people who can not distinguish between ض and ظ (and pronounce both as ظ) while reciting the Qur’ān in prayer, stating that they are excused because of the similarity of ض to ظ.
     
    In linguistics, the process is actually called pharyngealization or velarization which means that the back of the tongue is pulled either up towards the back of the mouth or back towards the throat. Here's a wiki entry about it. The Arabic term I believe is تفخيم.
    I am (currently) out of discussion but probably by linguistic approach some people try to make the issue fall inside another branch of science. or maybe try to explain by intersectional comprehensions. anyway, what I will say is that , I remember from some courses at MSc program, pharyngs and laryngs are parts of respiratory system.

    specifically these are some parts in our throat or if I do not remember wrong, may be part of upside of lung. (I could not clearly remember velar/velarization word)
     
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