established by 1943 [by + date]

Blue Apple

Senior Member
Persian (Iran)
Does the bold section mean 1300 of them were established until 1943 (i.e. in the years 1943, 1942, 1941, etc.)?

Nursery schools were a new, essential, but temporary support for women conscripted into full-time employment, with over 1,300 of them established by 1943.
  • Uncle Jack

    Senior Member
    British English
    You have the right meaning, but "until" is the wrong word. "Before" would work, except "before" usually excludes the time in question (1943) whereas "by" usually includes it.
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