Etymology of Gujarati word "ubha"

tarkshya

Senior Member
Marwari
What is the etymology of Gujarati word "ubha" or "ubhi" used for the verb "to stand".

This word is also found in Marwari, but not in any other language that I know of. In Hindi the corresponding word for stand is "utha/uthi" which seemingly has different origin. I don't think the "th" sound of Hindi changes to "bh" sound in Gujarati. So what is the origin of "ubha"? Can it be traced to Sanskrit? Or is it a foreign loan word?

The reason I ask is because the word "stand" is so common and kind of root word, it has to come from some deeper source. Does anyone have any idea?
 
  • marrish

    Senior Member
    اُردو Urdu
    Sanskrit ऊर्ध्व ūrdhvá is the origin. "rising or tending upwards , raised , elevated , erected , erect , upright , high"
     

    tarkshya

    Senior Member
    Marwari
    Thanks. Can you tell me what is your reference? As a matter of fact, what will be some good sites to trace the etymology of common words of Indo Aryan languages, because I am sure I am gonna need it frequently.
     

    tarkshya

    Senior Member
    Marwari
    Thanks everyone. So apparently Sanskrit ūrdhvá changed to Pali/Prakrit ubbha. Though I still can't see how the dh sound will shift to bh, I am not inclined to dispute the linguists. Thanks for the reference.
     

    Dib

    Senior Member
    Bengali (India)
    Though I still can't see how the dh sound will shift to bh, I am not inclined to dispute the linguists.

    Normally, you should try to get to the bottom of an issue, if you are not satisfied. And, liguists/philologists of all people have their fair share of mistakes too. This is what I found by some reflexion and digging around combined:

    It would look more natural if you remember that there existed a v>b shift as well. So, the -bbh- would probably have evolved from an intermediate form of *-rdbh- < *-rdhb- or something like that. There existed in Prakrits the parallel forms -tv- > -tp- > -pp- and -dv- > -db- > -bb- as well. Depending on the exact dialect, -tv- > -tt-, -dv- > -dd-, -dhv- > -ddh- were also possible. From the examples given in Pischel's "Grammatik der Prakrit-Sprachen" (Section 300), it appears that the p/b forms were common in Ardha-Māgadhī, Māhārāṣṭrī, Apabhraṃśa, etc. while the t/d forms were the norm in Śaurasenī and Māgadhī. For the particular word ūrdhvá > ubbha/uddha, and its related forms, Pischel lists (Jaina-)Māhārāṣṭrī having -bbh- while almost all major Prakrits (including (Jaina-)Māhārāṣṭrī) having the -ddh- (or -ḍḍh-) forms. For the ubbha- form, Pischel also refers to Hemacandra's authority - Sūtra/rule 2.59 ("वोर्ध्वे"), which specifically mentions that this word may optionally contain -bh-, meaning ubbha- besides uddha-. So, I believe, we are on pretty solid ground here.
     
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