From the Online Etymology Dictionary:English Orange ultimately comes from Sanskrit word, I think its narang so I'd like to the origin of the Sanskrit word and its PIE reconstruction, if it's a PIE word?
c.1300, from O.Fr. orenge (12c.), from M.L. pomum de orenge, from It. arancia, originally narancia (Venetian naranza), alt. of Arabic naranj, from Pers. narang, from Skt. naranga-s "orange tree," of uncertain origin. Loss of initial n- probably due to confusion with definite article (e.g. une narange, una narancia), but perhaps infl. by Fr. or "gold." The tree's original range probably was northern India. The Persian orange, grown widely in southern Europe after its introduction in Italy 11c., was bitter; sweet oranges were brought to Europe 15c. from India by Portuguese traders and quickly displaced the bitter variety, but only Mod.Gk. still seems to distinguish the bitter (nerantzi) from the sweet (portokali "Portuguese") orange.
Yule & Burnell said:Sir W. Jones, in his article on the Spikenard of the Ancients, quotes from Dr. Anderson of Madras, "a very curious philogical remark, that in the Tamul dictionary, most words beginning with nar have some relation to fragrance; as narukeradu, to yield an odour; nártum pillei, lemon-grass; nártei, citron;
The suggested link to fragrance is really interesting because orange blossoms are famous for their sweet scent. In Greek and Roman classical antiquity, there was a costly perfumed oil imported from the Near East called nardus in Latin (ναρδος in Greek). According to the Liddell and Scott lexicon, nardos is of Semitic origin, cf. Babylonian lardu.Hobson_Jobson, while agreeing that "no satisfactory etymological explanation has been given", has this interesting quote:
Sir W. Jones, in his article on the Spikenard of the Ancients, quotes from Dr. Anderson of Madras, "a very curious philogical remark, that in the Tamul dictionary, most words beginning with nar have some relation to fragrance; as narukeradu, to yield an odour; nártum pillei, lemon-grass; nártei, citron;
The Greek Muse's name was not Aurania, but Urania (Ouranos in Greek means Sky).I am interested in any links between the word aurania (orania) meaning cosmos (the Greek Muse), and the colour orange, and/or the colour gold.
The link looks tenuous, but the Dutch Fort Orange (Oranje) in New York was called Fort Aurania by the British. Obviously the Dutch for 'orange' would be pronounced more like 'oranie'.
I would also be interested in any links to the colour gold, via the French 'or' for gold and an 'aura' halo, which may often be golden.