Farmer

ThomasK

Senior Member
Belgium, Dutch
How do you translate 'farmer' in your language? Do you have derivations with some connotation?

There may be several terms, as in English*:
Dutch:

- landbouwer (land-cultivator [lit. builder], very objective)
- boer (general, often loaded with a connotation)
- fairly uncommon now: hereboer ('lord-farmer'literally, a [very] rich farmer, who does not need to work on the field himselfsometimes)
- boers (behaving in some rude way)


*English distinguishes between peasantsand farmers, I think, which refers to poor and rich farmers, or even workers and owners. It is not quiteclear to me whether a peasant in English can own a farm.

In French there is fermier vs. paysan, I believe. I found this interesting explanation for paysan at Wikipédia:
Un paysan est une personne tirant des ressources de la nature proche de son habitat. Ilpeut adopter ou subir une économie de subsistance.
 
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  • DearPrudence

    Dépêche Mod (AL mod)
    IdF
    French (lower Normandy)
    Actually, in French, the PC and modern term is
    "agriculteur, agricultrice"

    "fermier, fermière" sounds a bit old (but can be used by the farmers themselves if they wish so I would say)
    and as le Larousse says, "paysan, paysanne" can have pejorative connotations.
     

    ThomasK

    Senior Member
    Belgium, Dutch
    I should have remembered: you're right. It would be interesting to find out more about these (very subtle) differences: how come peasant/ paysan have that negative ring? How come fermier sounds old? Etc. Might be too broad though, lead us too far (astray ?). I do guess that 'fermier' sounds old-fashioned, because it is no longer only descriptive. The funny thing is that in Dutch politicians might refer to 'agrarische bedrijfsleiders' [agrarian firm-leaders] nowadays, rather than 'landbouwers', because the new term offers more status, more prestige...
     

    Rallino

    Moderatoúrkos
    Turkish
    In Turkish it's çiftçi /t͡ʃift't͡ʃi/

    It comes from the word çift, which means couple/double/two of an item. A farm is çiftlik, which suggests a field cultivated with the help of a couple of oxen. And I suppose çiftçi is the person who possesses those 'two' animals.

    There is also köylü (villager), but it can be deregatory.
     

    apmoy70

    Senior Member
    Greek
    In Greek:

    Farmer:

    A/ «Αγρότης, -τισσα» [a'ɣrotis] (masc.), [a'ɣrotisa] (fem.) --> farmer < Classical masc. noun «ἀγρότης & ἀγρώτης» ăgrótēs & ăgrṓtēs --> countryman, rustic; there existed a feminine form, «ἀγρότις» ăgrótis, reserved for the land nymphs (PIE h₂eǵ-ro-, field, cf Skt. अज्र (ajra), field; Lat. ager, field, farm > It./Sp./Por. agro, Fr. aire, Rom. agru).

    B/ «Γεωργός, -γός» [ʝe.or'ɣos] (masc. & fem.) < Classical masc. noun «γεωργός» gĕōrgós --> farmer, husbandman (in Sparta, tax farmer); Compound, fem. noun «γῆ» gê --> earth, soil, land (with uncertain etymology) + neut. noun «ἔργον» érgŏn --> work (PIE *werǵ-, work). From «γεωργός» the well-known male first name «Γεώργιος» (George), derives.

    We use A & B interchangeably. Perhaps a slight difference between the two is that an «αγρότης» can also be a pastoralist. A «γεωργός» is strictly the land cultivator.

    Edit: Rallino we too use «τσιφλικάς» [t͡sifli'kas] (masc.) for the owner of large landed estate-which is a «τσιφλίκι» [t͡si'flici] (neut.), but it's derogatory. Obviously a Turkish loan.
     
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    Rallino

    Moderatoúrkos
    Turkish
    Edit: Rallino we too use «τσιφλικάς» [t͡sifli'kas] (masc.) for the owner of large landed estate-which is a «τσιφλίκι» [t͡si'flici] (neut.), but it's derogatory. Obviously a Turkish loan.
    And you've just reminded me that we use ırgat as well, which is a Greek loan, from the word εργάτης. :)
     

    ThomasK

    Senior Member
    Belgium, Dutch
    The funny thing is that a German farmer just told me that Yuri in Russian referred to George(s) in English/ French and meant 'farmer' indeed. He and his wife happened to have chose that as their dog's name, and only later found out how well it fit in with their work !
     

    bibax

    Senior Member
    Czech (Prague)
    Czech:

    zemědělec (< země = land, earth, soil, related to Latin humus; obdělávati = to cultivate < dělati = to do, to make, -ec = agentive suffix) = agriculturer, a general neutral term (probably a calque from Latin agricola or Greek γεωργός) for all agricolae from the Neolithic era to the present day; zemědělství = agricultura; zemědělský (výrobek) = agricultural (product);

    sedlák (< *sědlo, usedlost = homestead, farmstead) = farmer, husbandman (I never heard the term before, husband means something else, of course). In the past (after the abolition of serfdom) the sedláks formed an important social and political class. After the communist coup d'état in 1948 they were violently forced to create the unified collective farms (with the rolníks). Now the word sedlák is a bit outdated. Sedlák is also a literary archetype (e.g. in fairy tales: rich/greedy/clever/dumb/etc. sedlák). The feminine form: selka (< *sedlka).

    statkář (< statek = homestead, estate) = a landowner, a richer sedlák;
    velkostatkář (velký = big) = a bigger statkář; both statkář and velkostatkář are outdated;

    rolník (< role = a piece of field) = a poorer villager, usually tenant of a small croft; his social status was bellow of that of the sedláks. The word rolník was widely used by the communists, the rolníks (symbolized by sickle) and the dělníks (= the factory workers, symbolized by hammer) formed the working class. The word rolník is rarely used nowadays.

    družstevník (< družstvo = co-op, collective < druh = mate, companion, partner) = coop-member. After 1948 the sedláks and the rolníks became družstevníks (in Soviet Russia kolkhoznik < kolkhoz колхоз = collective farm).

    In history there were also:

    zeman (< *zeměnín < země = land) = yeoman;
    dvořák (< dvůr = yard, court, courtyard) = free husbandman;
    svobodný (= free) sedlák, svobodník = free husbandman;
    láník = tenant of 1 lán (= oxgang, die Hufe, hoeve);
    pololáník, půlník = tenant of 1/2 lán;
    čtvrtláník, čtvrtník = tenant of 1/4 lán;
    nevolník = serf;
    etc.

    Zeman, Sedlák, Svobodník, Dvořák, Láník, Pololáník, Čtvrtník are also common Czech surnames.
     
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    aruniyan

    Senior Member
    Tamil
    Farmer in Tamil

    uzhavar(ulavar) : from the word Ulavu(to plough), Ulakkai(the plough) - this word refers taking something inside, (ie.) making of the land fit for seeding.

    vElaalar : from the word vEl (Protect)

    vivasaayi : (from Sanskrit)
     
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    ThomasK

    Senior Member
    Belgium, Dutch
    So there are three words based on three different roots. I just checked whether our plough/ ploeg could have to do with two, opening up into two parts, and our etymologiebank.nl refers to that possibility. But would you be able to comment on the other two roots, and especially on the link between farming and protecting? Or does it refer to protecting the soil, as in Hebrew shamar, which seems to mean something like guarding and fig. observing rules?
     

    aruniyan

    Senior Member
    Tamil
    vElaalar, vElaalanmai = Farming : in the sense of using/giving in times OF NEED.

    vivasayi : Sanskrit word vaisya (not sure about the root)
     

    arielipi

    Senior Member
    Hebrew
    Hebrew:

    A vegetable farmer is - חקלאי khaqlay.
    A cattle farmer is - חוואי khavay.
    A peasant is איכר icar, also יוגב yogev.
     

    ancalimon

    Senior Member
    Turkish
    In Turkish it's çiftçi /t͡ʃift't͡ʃi/

    It comes from the word çift, which means couple/double/two of an item. A farm is çiftlik, which suggests a field cultivated with the help of a couple of oxen. And I suppose çiftçi is the person who possesses those 'two' animals.
    I think çiftçi is the person who "produces ~ reproduces plants and animals". As in çiftleştirmek (to cause to breed, to cause to replicate). I don't think it's directly related with "two".

    There is also the possibility that it comes from çivitçi which means "indigo producer". But I don't think so.
     

    Maroseika

    Moderator
    Russian
    The funny thing is that a German farmer just told me that Yuri in Russian referred to George(s) in English/ French and meant 'farmer' indeed. He and his wife happened to have chose that as their dog's name, and only later found out how well it fit in with their work !
    Strictly speaking, Γεώργιος is not a farmer, but, more particularly, - a ploughman, from γεωργία - treatment of earth < γῆ - earth and ἀρόω - to plough (cf. Russian орать - the same).
    Russian Yuriy < Gyurgi < Γεώργιος.
    By the way, there is another Russian derivative from this Greek name: Yegor < Yegorei/Gegorei/Yegorgei < Γεώργιος.
     

    apmoy70

    Senior Member
    Greek
    I'm afraid both Beekes (Etymological Dictionary of Greek, p.270) and Babiniotis (Lexicon of Modern Greek, p.412) associate «γεωργός», «γεωργία» & «Γεώργιος» with «ἔργον» (PIE *werǵ-, work) and not with «ἀρόω» (PIE *h₂erh₃-, to plough cf Lat. arō; Rus. орать):
    Beekes --> «γη-ϝοργός» or «γη-ϝεργός» & Doric «γαβεργός»
    Babiniotis --> «γᾱ-ϝοργός»
    Thus, «Γεώργιος» is lit. the worker (i.e. cultivator) of land
     

    AquisM

    Senior Member
    English/Cantonese
    农夫/農夫 (nong fu) is the standard term for farmer in Chinese. It literally means farm/agriculture (农/農) man (夫).
     

    ThomasK

    Senior Member
    Belgium, Dutch
    I had been wondering about this word 'noter', but now I found an explanation: it is a guard, I understand (I am sorry):
    a Jewish 'Noter' (guard) in Eretz-Israel/Palestine from the period 1936-48.
    But I understand there is no link whatsoever with farming in Hebrew (there isn't any in the languages I know either, I now realize).
     

    arielipi

    Senior Member
    Hebrew
    I had been wondering about this word 'noter', but now I found an explanation: it is a guard, I understand (I am sorry): But I understand there is no link whatsoever with farming in Hebrew (there isn't any in the languages I know either, I now realize).
    Correct but a noter is used in modern hebrew for one guarding farms.
     

    Maroseika

    Moderator
    Russian
    I'm afraid both Beekes (Etymological Dictionary of Greek, p.270) and Babiniotis (Lexicon of Modern Greek, p.412) associate «γεωργός», «γεωργία» & «Γεώργιος» with «ἔργον» (PIE *werǵ-, work) and not with «ἀρόω» (PIE *h₂erh₃-, to plough cf Lat. arō; Rus. орать):
    Beekes --> «γη-ϝοργός» or «γη-ϝεργός» & Doric «γαβεργός»
    Babiniotis --> «γᾱ-ϝοργός»
    Thus, «Γεώργιος» is lit. the worker (i.e. cultivator) of land
    Thank you very much for correction.
     

    jana.bo99

    Senior Member
    Cro, Slo
    Farmer

    In German: Landwirt, Gutsherr, Bauer

    In Slovenian: kmet

    In Croatian: poljoprivrednik, seljak

    Beside that Germans and Croatians say also: Farmer
     

    Grefsen

    Senior Member
    English - United States
    Here are three words that can be used to mean farmer in Norwegian:

    bonde, gårdbruker (farm + user), landbruker (land + user)

    I've sometimes heard bonde used in a derogatory manner by Norwegians when they are referring to someone who is unsophisticated and/or lives in a small town. Two Norwegian words for a farm are gård and gårdbruk and one of the Norwegian words used for agriculture is landbruk.
     
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    clansaorsa

    Member
    English UK
    In Scots Gaelic the word we used for farmer (the occupation of my grandfather) was gabhaltaiche. (I apologise in advance to the seemingly rather pedantic Irishman out there if my spelling is inaccurate or, God forbid, I've missed out an accent - I was never taught to write the language just to speak a little bit of it).
     

    ThomasK

    Senior Member
    Belgium, Dutch
    Here are three words that can be used to mean farmer in Norwegian:

    bonde, gårdbruker (farm + user), landbruker (land + user)
    Interesting. We have gebruiken as well, but we'd never say 'een landgebruiker'. Yet, 'gebruiken' refer to the same root as 'fruit', and so implies enjoying, which I find an interesting link (because it adds a dimension beyond mere 'instrumentality'...).
    Here are three words that can be used to mean farmer in Norwegian:

    bonde, gårdbruker (farm + user), landbruker (land + user)
    Interesting. We have gebruiken as well, but we'd never say 'een landgebruiker'. Yet, 'gebruiken' refer to the same root as 'fruit', and so implies enjoying, which I find an interesting link (because it adds a dimension beyond mere 'instrumentality'...).
    In Scots Gaelic the word we used for farmer (the occupation of my grandfather) was gabhaltaiche.
    Would you be able to comment on the origin/ structure of the word?
     
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    rusita preciosa

    Modus forendi
    Russian (Moscow)
    Russian:
    фермер /fermer/ - the modern word for farmer, borrowed from English
    крестьянин /krestyanin/ - general word for a person who lives and works in the country (comes from the word "christian") - slightly outdated
    земледелец /zemledelets/ - lit. land-doer (someone who grows crops)
    хлебороб /khleborob/ - lit. bread-worker (someone who grows grains, specifically wheat)
    животновод /zhivotnovod/ - lit. animal-breeder (someone who takes care of farm animals)
    колхозник /kolkhoznik/ - lit. col-farm-er (soviet term for workers of collective farms); could be a derogatory term for someone unsophisticated / uneducated
    деревенский житель /derevenskiy zhitel/ - country/village dweller (general term for someone who lives in the country as opposed to the city, regardless of occupation)

     

    clansaorsa

    Member
    English UK
    Would you be able to comment on the origin/ structure of the word?
    The first part of the word 'gabhaltaiche' comes, I believe, from the root 'gabh' meaning 'take' or 'receive' with 'gabhail' being a leased farm - a very common practice in the feudal system widespread in Scotland - and 'gabhaltaiche' the person who farmed it.
     

    ThomasK

    Senior Member
    Belgium, Dutch
    Russian:
    крестьянин /krestyanin/ - general word for a person who lives and works in the country (comes from the word "christian") - slightly outdated
    хлебороб /khleborob/ - lit. bread-worker (someone who grows grains, specifically wheat)
    деревенский житель /derevenskiy zhitel/ - country/village dweller (general term for someone who lives in the country as opposed to the city, regardless of occupation)

    Thanks. Some extra questions:
    - What is the link with religion?
    -Do you other /borob/'s ?
    - Are those 'dwellers' per se farmers? (I suppose it is more like peasants, land workers, often not owning a farm or land...)
     

    rusita preciosa

    Modus forendi
    Russian (Moscow)
    Thanks. Some extra questions:
    - What is the link with religion? - I guess it any peasant or representative of the country people/masses was automatically thought of as Christian

    -Do you other /borob/'s ? - the structure is хлебороб /khleb-o-rob/, where khleb- meand "bread", -o- is a connecting vowel, -rob is root for "work". The only similar structure I can think of is cotton picker, хлопкороб /khlopk-o-rob/ (lit. cotton worker), but there could be others.

    - Are those 'dwellers' per se farmers? (I suppose it is more like peasants, land workers, often not owning a farm or land...) - no, it could be anyone who does not live in a city - a farm hand, a farm owner, a school teacher, a priest, a retiree, etc; it also does not imply ownership of land.
    There is a term for land owner землевладелец /zemlevladelets/ which literally means landowner. It usually means someone who owns land in the country, but in principle can mean owner of any land.
     
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    apmoy70

    Senior Member
    Greek
    And a derogatory name in Greek:

    «Αγροίκος» [a'ɣrikos] (masc.) and rare «αγροίκα» [a'ɣrika] (fem.) --> lout, boorish, coarse < Byz. Greek «ἀγροῖκος» aɣroîkos (masc. & fem.) --> countryman/woman, naive person < Classical adj. «ἄγροικος, -ος, -ον» ắgroikŏs (masc. & fem.), ắgroikŏn (neut.) --> person dwelling in the fields, countryman/woman < compound, masc. noun «ἀγρός» āgrós --> field, farm (PIE h₂eǵ-ro-, field cf Skt. अज्र (ajra), field; Lat. ager, field, farm > It./Sp./Por. agro, Fr. aire, Rom. agru) + masc. noun «οἶκος» oîkŏs --> house, dwelling place, household (PIE *ueiḱ-/*uoiḱ-, house cf Skt विश् (viz), people, tribe; Lat. vīcus, village, quarter)
     

    ThomasK

    Senior Member
    Belgium, Dutch
    I wonder about any connotations, especially derogatory connotations. Apmoy is just suggesting there is a derogatory name for 'farmer', but I am not sure I can recognize anything derogatory in the other examples.
     

    Outsider

    Senior Member
    Portuguese (Portugal)
    In Portuguese you can choose between:

    - agricultor (a cognate of English agriculture) from Latin literally "field cultivator" (~farmer).

    - camponês, country dweller (~peasant).

    - lavrador, ploughman.

    The latter two are somewhat old-fashioned or literary. None of these words is derogatory per se as far as I know, at least nowadays, but there is for example campónio meaning "hick".
     

    Yondlivend

    Senior Member
    American English
    I wonder about any connotations, especially derogatory connotations. Apmoy is just suggesting there is a derogatory name for 'farmer', but I am not sure I can recognize anything derogatory in the other examples.
    Latin villanus seemed to develop that way in romance languages, and gave English the term villain. This word could be used to mean "farmer" in Middle English as well, and with this historic sense it exists in the form villein. I'm not aware of any that uses the word in the sense of farmer today.

    Its derogatory sense came early, as can be seen in this Old Occitan lyric:
    E tenhatz lo por vilan qui no l’enten

    And when it entered English from French (around 1300 according to etymonline) it already had (somewhat) negative connotations. There's a quote in the entry for villain which describes the semantic shift of the term in English, which may be paralleled in other languages as well:
    c.1300, "base or low-born rustic," from Anglo-French and Old French villain, from Medieval Latin villanus "farmhand," from Latin villa "country house" (see villa).

    The most important phases of the sense development of this word may be summed up as follows: 'inhabitant of a farm; peasant; churl, boor; clown; miser; knave, scoundrel.' Today both Fr. vilain and Eng. villain are used only in a pejorative sense. [Klein]
     

    ThomasK

    Senior Member
    Belgium, Dutch
    Very interesting contribution. It reminds me of dorpeling in medieval Dutch, as opposed to a member of the court, a villager literally, but mainly a person form the village, a little bit like a peasant, I think, or a villain...
     

    nimak

    Senior Member
    Macedonian
    Macedonian:

    земјоделец (zemjódelec) masc. lit. "an earth/land-doer";
    полјоделец (poljódelec) masc. lit. "a field-doer";

    Земја (Zémja) fem. = "Earth (planet)";​
    земја (zémja) fem. = "earth", "soil", "ground", "land", "country";​
    поле (póle) neut. = "field";​
    "делец" ("delec") archaism, Old Slavic = "doer", "worker"; cf. делник (délnik) masc. = "workday";​

    There is also a word:
    селанец (sélanec) masc., which literally means someone who lives in a village/countryside, "villager", "countryman"; but in English it is also sometimes translated as "peasant", "farmer";

    село (sélo) neut. = "village", "countryside";​
     
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