Figurative "repair" or compensation

ThomasK

Senior Member
Belgium, Dutch
I am wondering how you translate (a) compensation and/or "repair" (amend?) in the figurative sense. I am especially interested in the underlying metaphor... But the (b) negative form of that would be retaliation, I think. It might be interesting to add those variants.

Examples:
(a) Let me XXX your expenses! You will never be able to XXX this loss!
(b) I don't forgive you, I'll YYY !!!
 
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  • ThomasK

    Senior Member
    Belgium, Dutch
    For (a) I have thinking of:
    - to compensate (ENG and derivations based on compens- in many other languages) : restoring a balance (pensare causative for pendere, to hang)
    - to repay is mainly literally: repay the money lent --- or pay back, but see (b)
    - herstelbetaling: paying (betaling) for re-storation (her-stel) - in politics especially
    - to make up for
    // German Wiedergutmachung, : to make (machen) / good (gut)/ again, but only in a very specific historic meaning (compensation for damage after WWII).
    Dutch has vergoeden [to PREFIX - good - V-suffix], like repay, compensate. Dutch goedmaken as well, but that is compensation for what we did to people (Hoe kan ik het goedmaken? How can can ik make it up to/for you?)

    As for (b):
    'Pay back' is often some form of retaliation, I believe, not a compensation, on the contrary... Vergelding in Dutch (geld = money) ==> pay back.
     

    Awwal12

    Senior Member
    Russian
    I am wondering how you translate (a) compensation and/or "repair" (amend?) in the figurative sense.
    1. v. Возместить (vozmestít'), lit. "place up", "re-place", "place in return", obviously of Church Slavonic origin, with the only Russian meaning being "to compensate for sth";
    2. v. Компенсировать (kompensírovat').
    Simply "~pay for sth" is always an option, of course.
    Nouns are generally deverbal here.
     

    ThomasK

    Senior Member
    Belgium, Dutch
    This "up" is interesting , it seems to mean something like constructive (re-building?)... (That it also means re- is less evident to me, but that would be a side-thread...)

    How about retaliation, Awwal?
     

    Awwal12

    Senior Member
    Russian
    How about retaliation, Awwal?
    Возме́здие (vozmézdiye), literally ~"paying up", "re-payment" is a possibility, yes.
    The Church Slavonic prefix voz- corresponds to the East Slavic prefix vz- (basically unproductive), which apparently has only the "up" meaning (take < "take up"; "blow up"; take off < "fly up", explode < "tear up", etc.).
     

    Awwal12

    Senior Member
    Russian
    Maybe voz- is more perfective, Awwal... (Like eat up, drink up)
    It doesn't seem so. All in all, spatial morphemes just tend to acquire various not-so-predictable side meanings. I see as much logic in the Slavic "up" > "back" as in the Germanic "up" > "completely" (which is, frankly, not much).
     

    ThomasK

    Senior Member
    Belgium, Dutch
    Well, Lakoff and Johnson focused on that as for English: this "up" is still productive but not in a predictable way, I agree. But still...

    German has "einräumen". That refers to another interesting metaphor: one who admits creates space (Raum), by making oneself small, I think.
    There is also "(ein)gestehen". The role of standing (stehen) is not that clear to me: standings reminds me of some kind of force (as in sist- verbs like insist (I stand on it, literally), but admitting does not- except perhaps that it takes courage (to stand, to stay upirght) when confessing mistakes, errors, sins...
     

    Welsh_Sion

    Senior Member
    Welsh - Northern
    Quick post (much work at present).

    Have you considered reparations also - the legal term for when (usually) a country pays compensation to other countries (e.g. Germany after the Treaty of Versailles) after losing a war.

    And think of the exact opposite of 'repair' (in a way) when lawyers think of compensation as (civil law) damages.

    Talk again, soon!
     

    ThomasK

    Senior Member
    Belgium, Dutch
    Thanks a lot. I did, but I forgot to mention the word as I used "restoration" (stellen in Dutch: make stand), whereas repair might have been better...
    (...)
    - herstelbetaling: paying (betaling) for re-storation (her-stel) - in politics especially
    (...) Dutch has vergoeden [to PREFIX - good - V-suffix], like repay, compensate. Dutch goedmaken as well, but that is compensation for what we did to people (Hoe kan ik het goedmaken? How can can ik make it up to/for you?)
     
    In Greek compensation and compensate can take many figurative meanings, depending on context:

    -«Επανορθώνω» [e.pa.nɔrˈθɔ.nɔ] (verb) --> to compensate, make amends < Classical v. «ἐπανορθόω/ἐπανορθῶ» ĕpănŏrtʰóō (uncontracted)/ĕpănŏrtʰô (contracted) --> lit. to set up aɡain, fiɡ. to restore, correct, revise, make amends < compound = Classical prefix and preposition «ἐπί» ĕpí + Classical preposition «ἀνά» ănắ + Classical adj. «ὀρθός» ŏrtʰós.
    Noun: «Επανόρθωση» [e.paˈnɔr.θɔ.si] (fem.) < Classical 3rd declension fem. noun «ἐπανόρθωσις» ĕpănórtʰōsis --> compensation.

    -«Εξισορροπώ» [e.k͡si.sɔ.ɾɔˈpɔ] (verb) --> to compensate, counterbalance, a MoGr construction (1886) < compound = prefix & preposition «ἐκ» [ek], which becomes «ἐξ» [ek͡s] when the next word begins with a vowel < Classical preposition «ἐκ» ĕk + fem. noun «ἰσορροπία» [i.sɔ.ɾɔˈpi.a] < Classical fem. noun «ἰσοῤῥοπίᾱ» ĭsŏrrʰŏpíā --> equipoise, equilibrium (= Classical adj. «ἴσος» ísŏs + Classical fem. noun «ῥοπή» rʰŏpḗ).
    Noun: «Εξισορρόπηση» [e.k͡si.sɔˈɾɔ.pi.si] (fem.) --> counterbalance < Katharevousa Gr 3rd declension fem. noun «ἐξισορρόπησις» [e.k͡si.sɔˈɾɔ.pi.sis].

    -«Αποζημιώνω» [a.pɔ.zi.miˈɔ.nɔ] (verb) --> to compensate, reimburse, a MoGr construction (1840), calqued for the Fr. v. indemniser < compound = prefix and preposition «ἀπό» [aˈpɔ] < Classical preposition «ἀπό» ăpó + Katharevousa Gr fem. noun «ζημία» [ziˈmi.a] < Classical fem. noun «ζημίᾱ» zēmíā.
    Noun: «Αποζημίωση» [a.pɔ.ziˈmi.ɔ.si] (fem.) < Katharevousa Gr 3rd declension fem. noun «ἀποζημίωσις» [a.pɔ.ziˈmi.ɔ.sis] --> compensation, reimbursement, indemnity.

    -«Αντισταθμίζω» [an.di.staθˈmi.zɔ] (verb) --> to compensate, counterbalance, counterpoise < Koine denominative v. «ἀντισταθμίζω» ăntĭstătʰmízō --> to counterpoise, balance, compensate < Classical nominal «ἀντίσταθμος» ăntístătʰmŏs --> counterpoising, balancing < compound = Classical prefix & preposition «ἀντί» ăntí + Classical masc. noun «σταθμός» stătʰmós.
    Noun: «Αντιστάθμιση» [an.diˈstaθ.mi.si] (fem.) < Classical 3rd declension fem. noun «ἀντιστάθμισις» ăntĭstắtʰmisis --> counterpoisinɡ, compensation.
     
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    ThomasK

    Senior Member
    Belgium, Dutch
    So I could distil these underlying metaphors - or am I making it too simple, Apmoy?
    - straight, right
    - inclination (towards balance?) ? Is that the meaning of /ropi/?
    - undoing a loss
    - anti-weight
    Thanks!
     
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