Finnish sound change a->e

muhahaa

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Finnish
What are the conditions for the a->e (i in final position) sound change in Finnish?

E.g.
ajaa, ajetaan
suomalainen - Suomi, Suomen (*ćoma?)
kahtalainen - kaksi, kahden (*kakta)
suuremman - suurempi


yksi, yhden - yhtäläinen: analogical ä? (*ükti <- *üki)
Ruotsi, Ruotsin - ruotsalainen: is this a analogical too? Ruotsi is an i-stem word.
 
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  • Bubrich (Бубрих ДВ · 1948 · Историческая фонетика финского-суоми языка: 71–79) discusses the idea suggested by L. Kettunen (1924 in "Virittäjä") that Baltic-Finnic experienced a shift a/ä>e in non-initial syllables between two dentals (r, l, n, t, s) belonging to the same syllable, e. g.:

    Allative -lle<-llen<-len<*-la-n

    Genitive Pl. -ten<*-ta-n (meidän etc. regarded as influenced by meijän)

    Infinitives on -ten and -tessa (pestä : pesten, pestessä, antaa : antaen, antaessa), i. e. *-ta-k>-ta : *-ta-n>-ten, *-ta-sna>-tessa

    Passive of the a-verbs, of which the vast majority possess stems ending on -ta-: nostettiin, nostettu; elettiin, eletty — thus, ajetaan must have been leveled after the predominant pattern

    -ele- verbs: nostaa : nostella, later generalized to other cases, e. g. sanoa : sanella

    kohta : kohden, vasta- (vastatuuli) : vasten, ylä (yläosa) : ylen.

    Bubrich, however, mentions several cases when the shift a/ä>e doesn't look conditioned by the position between the dentals.

    One group consists of the ne-verbs (kova : kovenen, heikko : heikkenen; always trisyllabic), the Comparative (kova : kovempi, also trisyllabic vs. matala : matalampi), the ea-verbs (where e is generalized but it mostly follows k: aueta, haljeta, poiketa, seldom p: ruveta) and the ea-adjectives (aukea, selkeä) — however, the ne-verbs, ea-verbs and ea-adjectives are interrelated (selkeä- : selkene-), in particular the ne-verbs use some te-forms in their paradigm: koveta<*kovet-ta-k, not **kovenna<*koven-ta-k, kovettiin, not **koventiin, kovetkaa not **kovenkaa, while kovennen and kovennut can be interpreted as both koven-ne-n, koven-nut and <*kovet-ne-n, <*kovet-nut.

    The other groups include nouns on *-ek (kastaa : kaste, estää : este, later extended to other cases), -eh- (pisara : pisare, rypälä : rypäle, murena : murene) and verbs on -aksi-, -aksu- (hyväksyä) along with -eksi-, -eksu- (halpa : halveksia, kumma : kummeksia).


    The case with Suomi : suomalainen is even longer; it is discussed on pp. 45–57. Bubrich's explanation is that originally the final a/ä was dropped in words with the uneven number of syllables, remained as a/ä in bisyllabic words after a short open first syllable (and perhaps in some other cases) and turned into i in all other cases, e. g.:

    Nominative Singular, especially often after m: Suomi (suomalainen), luomi (luoma), lämmin, muudan, seitsen- (seitsenkertainen), ton-adjectives (dialectally -toin), istuin : istuma, synnyin (synnyinmaa) : syntymä, elin (elinpaikka) : elämä — these words were influenced by the types of nimi and sydän (Karelian sydäin) and switched to the e-stems

    Superlative: -in originally belonged to the ma-stems as evidenced by Livvi Karelian; also Karelian has vasein, vasema- vs. the modified Finnish vasen, vasempa-.

    Present Active participles: saapi : saavat, antavi : antavat

    Essive: huomenna : eilen, ennen; kesken : keskenänsä, yksin : yksinänsä

    Partitive: nyt<nyyt<*nykyt vs. tätä nykyä, perhaps minut, sinut, hänet, kenet, and secondarily meidät, teidät, heidät

    Lative: taa<*taka-k (cp. taka-) vs. täällä<*tä-kä-lnä, tä-kä-läinen.
     
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    The literature suggests also that, based on the Saami correspondences, the a/ä-stem was originally present in järvi, kaksi (from your question), pieli, salmi, sappi, sarvi, suoli, särki, talvi, tähti and vaski.

    Ruotsi, if it originated from the Norse Róþs- in the second half of the 1st millennium (Roslagen - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia and Rus' (name) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia), is an adaptation of a foreign word (cp. also Estonian Vene vs. Finnish Venäjä).

    The Finno-Ugric "1" is reconstructed as *ikte~*ükte (e. g. Erzyan vejke vs. kavto, Mokshan kafta), so yhtäläinen must be indeed analogical after kahtalainen, as you suggest.
     
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