In China, foods are quite different among different areas. Here in southeast part, especially in Guangzhou, the most famous cuisine must be "dim sum" (点心),small portions of a variety of foods. Many of their translation is beyond my knowledge. So I list some popular dim sum below in cantonese.
牛肉烧卖,干蒸,虾饺,凤爪,叉烧包,生肉包,蛋挞,春卷,白粥油炸鬼,艇仔粥,及第粥,肠粉,马蹄糕,萝卜糕,芋头糕... and much more.
Tzatziki: entry dish of yogurt, olive oil, cucumber and garlic
Moussaka: Main dish of sliced potatoes, fried egg plant, tomato sauce with mince meat and bechamel in the oven.
Feta cheese: white cheese made of goat and cow milk.
Souvlaki: pieces of pork meat on a skewer
Meze: the equivalent of italian anti-pasto
Ouzo: alcoholik drink made of anis, equivalent to turkish raki
Pita: pie. Usually made with feta cheese or spinach.
Clam Chowder (New England) - type of thick clam stew
Maryland Crab Cakes (Maryland) - fried cakes with crab meat
Succotash (East coast) - type of bean/corn mash with other ingredients
Collard Greens (South) - a green, leafy vegetable reduced with pork, vinegar and other ingredients
Gumbo (Louisiana) - A stew made with okra and a type of meat (chicken, shrimp, etc.)
Michigan (Upstate New York) - a hot dog with a semi-spicy meat sauce (not chili), normally served with vinegar and chopped onions.
Chili (Southwest, Texas, Midwest) - a spicy bean and meat stew with onions, oregano, cumin, and other spices (not to be confused with chili pepper, though they are incorporated)
Barbecue/BBQ (Southeast, South, Texas, Midwest) - a style of preparing meats such as chicken, beef, or pork with a specific sauce over an open flame. Also, the name for the sauce, which, depending on region, ranges in its ingredients, producing something sweet, tangy or savory.
Chimichanga (Arizona, New Mexico) - a fried burrito with meat, beans and/or cheese.
Keep in mind that immigrant palats have greatly changed the diet of the US, so it's difficult to draw the line between "American" and imported foods. The list I gave above does not include one type of food that hasn't had some influence from another culture (succotash is a native dish, gumbo has West African influence, etc.). Obviously pizza (Italian), sausages - such as hot dogs (Northern European) and tacos (Mexican) are all from different cultures originally, but they've had a lot of time to become "Americanized" and therefore may be included on this list. I've had pizza in Naples, it's nothing like Chicago- or New York-style. And tacos in Sonora are much different than their north-of-the-border cousins.
Some slang terms for to eat:
"to grub" - to satisfy an urge to eat
"to chow" - to eat hardily
"to scarf down" - to eat quickly
"to woof up" - to eat quickly
"to pig out" - implies gluttonous eating
"to snack" - to have something between meals
I just want to add some of our famous Filipino delicacies:
Adobo- can be made from chicken or pork, this dish is very popular in the Philippines
Sinigang - meat stew but with a tangy flavor from tamarind or tomatoes
Lechon - roasted pig but we crave for crispy skin rather than the meat and this is served with liver sauce.
Paksiw - can be made from fish or lechon meat
Ube halaya - made from purple yam
Sapin-sapin - layered glutenous rice
Mangga with bagoong
Adobo- chicken or pork cooked with soy sauce, vinegar and other spices. This dish is very popular in the Philippines
Sinigang - meat stew with a tangy flavor of tamarind
Lechon - roasted pig (but we crave for crispy skin rather than the meat) served with liver sauce.
Paksiw - fish or lechon meat cooked with vinegar, onion,garlic and a little soy sauce.
Dinuguan - pig's internal organs (intestines and liver) cooked with pig's blood, vinegar, and green chili (you bet this one is the most delicious food among all).
Ube halaya - mashed purple yam cooked with condensed milk ( mixed together until sticky)
Biko - steamed glutenous rice cooked with coconut milk and brown sugar
Sapin-sapin - layered glutenous rice
Mangga with bagoong - green mangoes paired with shrimp paste
Halo-halo - a mixed of crushed ice, sweetened banana, jackfruit strips, rice crispies, Ube halaya, sweetened beans, gelatin, leche flan,white sugar, poured with evaporated milk and ice cream for toppings (perfect for summertime! hehehe).