# formulation to describe phenomena using the known probability principles.

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#### hhtt

##### Senior Member
"In the twentieth century, two theoretical frameworks emerged for formulating the laws of physics. The first is Alber Eintein's general theory of relativity, a theory that explains the force of gravity and the structure of space and time. The other is quantum mechanics which is a completely different formulation to describe physical phenomena using the known probabiliy principles."

Does it mean "quantum mechanics is different because of "probability principles" or "quantum mechanics is different among other formulations with probability principles"?

I am having trouble with what I read. Would you please explain which one is correct?

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/String_theory+&cd=1&hl=tr&ct=clnk&gl=tr

• #### PaulQ

##### Senior Member
the known probability principles. = "the principles of probability that were already known at that time.

The probability principles refer to the fact that when you try to ecxamine subatomic particles, the speed and the position of particles cannot be known at the same time. However, what can be known is the probability of the position of a subatomic particle - this allowed Quantum Mechanics to progress (see Dirac et al.) and Quantum mechanics - Wikipedia

#### hhtt

##### Senior Member
Does the sentence say it is different because it uses probability principles or the sentence says it is different among other formulation which uses probability (not giving the reason why it is a different formulation)?

#### Uncle Jack

##### Senior Member
Does it mean "quantum mechanics is different because of "probability principles"
This.
There is no probability involved in Einstein's general theory of relativity.

#### PaulQ

##### Senior Member
It says
The first is Albert Eintein's general theory of relativity,.. The other is quantum mechanics which is a completely different .. and which uses the known probability principles."

#### hhtt

##### Senior Member
This.
There is no probability involved in Einstein's general theory of relativity.
But if you hadn't known that there was no probability in Einstein's theory, would you have understood it from that sentence though, i.e could you have understood it from that sentence without any pre-knowledge? So might the sentence be vague\undetermined from this point?

#### Uncle Jack

##### Senior Member
But if you hadn't known that there was no probability in Einstein's theory, would you have understood it from that sentence though, i.e could you have understood it from that sentence without any pre-knowledge? So might the sentence be vague\undetermined from this point?
It isn't entirely unambiguous (English rarely is), but "is...different" prompts the reader to look for what the difference is, and when a few words later they encounter "using the known probability principles" with no other explanation for its presence, the obvious conclusion is that this is the difference: quantum mechanics uses this, which means that Einstein's theory does not.

#### hhtt

##### Senior Member
It isn't entirely unambiguous (English rarely is), but "is...different" prompts the reader to look for what the difference is, and when a few words later they encounter "using the known probability principles" with no other explanation for its presence, the obvious conclusion is that this is the difference: quantum mechanics uses this, which means that Einstein's theory does not.
Being unambiguous of Engilsh would be dependent of the authors, wouldn it? There are 47 different and only 2 probability in the article (by ctrl+f function.) But both of different and probability only remain in one sentence and one paragraph, which is under the title fundamentals. So don't you still think that without any background it is confusing for what makes quantum theory different than others? Yes using probability principles might be a clue for this but cannot the explanation be better than it is?

#### heypresto

##### Senior Member
I agree with PaulQ and Uncle Jack. I can't see any reason not to think it means anything other than quantum mechanics is completely different from Relativity, and uses probability principles.

If I understand you correctly, to mean "quantum mechanics is different among other formulations with probability principles", it would have to say something like 'The other is quantum mechanics, which is one of the completely different formulations that describe physical phenomena using the known probability principles."

Remember that Wikipedia articles are not necessarily written in the best English. The writers may know their specialist stuff, but they may not be the best writers.

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