Forum Rules & Online Resources for Indo-Iranian Languages

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Senior Member
Nederlands / Dutch (Belgium)
Welcome to the Indo-Iranian Languages Forum (IIR)!

The scope of this forum are all the contemporary members of the IIR family: Hindi, Urdu, Persian, Afghan Persian/Dari, Gujarati, Punjabi, Romani, Pali, Nepali, and many many more.

Please indicate clearly which language(s) you want to discuss.
Some examples of existing threads:

  • Urdu: jaaiz
  • Hindi: jana
  • Hindi/Urdu: confusing, confused, confusion
  • Persian: How was your trip?
Forum Rules
The IIR Forum
General WordReference Rules

Online resources
Bengali (Bangla)
Old Persian (+)
Sogdian (+)

(Languages marked with a + are extinct / dead languages.
They are only added to this list for the sake of completeness)

Further suggestions
Suggestions for online resources are very welcome!
Please use the report feature at the bottom of this post to send us links to websites you think should be included here. Upon approval, we will add the suggested links to resources pages.

Thanks to ...
... all the people who contributed to these resources pages!!
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  • Frank06

    Senior Member
    Nederlands / Dutch (Belgium)
    In order to achieve the WR missions, discussions in the fora are moderated in keeping with the forum rules. Here is a quick explanation of the most important ones.

    1. Be helpful, not hurtful
    If someone's language background isn't perfect, don't treat him/her badly.

    2. Quoted material
    • Song lyrics may be quoted and translated up to a maximum of 4 lines. Threads and posts with song lyric quotations and translations beyond 4 lines will be removed.
    • No web pages or copyrighted content may be inserted into WordReference posts except as indicated below. Minor fair use excerpts from dictionaries such as a definition/translation or two are permitted. Quotes and translations of texts up to 4 sentences are permitted. Links to content elsewhere are acceptable and appropriate, provided such links meet the requirements stated elsewhere in these rules. Always acknowledge the source. All forms of inserted content that do not meet these conditions will be removed without exception.
    • New: You may not post audio or video files or links unless you get moderator approval ahead of time.
      All these posts need to say which moderator approved it.
      All audio and video files and links that do not have prior approval will be deleted. Permission will not be granted after the fact for deleted files or links. Please ask first.
    3. Homework
    If you want help with a school assignment, you are required to do your own work first. Then, and only then, may you post it with a request for help with specific doubts.

    4. Look for the answer first
    Check the online resources first. (see our resources collection for some links to online dictionaries).

    5. Thread title
    • Put the word or phrase in the title when asking a question (avoid "translation please", "how do I say this?", "does this word exist?", "I'm new", "Help!" and the like).
    • If your question is about a dialect or other non-standard linguistic varieties, please indicate that in the title of your thread.
    6. Context
    Always provide an example sentence and give background and context.

    7. Be polite
    The use of "Hello", “Hi” and "Thank you" is welcome.

    8. Thou shall not chat...
    Don’t use the forum as a chat board (it is inefficient); use the private message (PM) feature if you want to send a personal message to another forum member.

    9. Commercial sites
    Do not post links to commercial sites. This is an advertising free forum and we want to keep it this way.

    10. Suggestions for online resources
    If you have further questions please post them in the Comments and Suggestions Forum or send a private message (PM) to your favorite moderator.

    11. Report-a-post
    Use the report-a-post feature in the top right corner of each post, if you read a post that contains questionable language/pictures or if you feel it does not belong to this specific forum. This will help to run the forum smoothly.

    12. Changes
    Please check the forum rules periodically since they will be updated whenever necessary. For a detailed list, please check the comprehensive WR Rules

    13. WR is a language forum
    Keep in mind that WR is a language forum. Please refrain from posting political, ideological and other non-linguistic contents.


    Senior Member
    Nederlands / Dutch (Belgium)


    - -- A collection of South Asian dictionaries (some of which a bit dated) including Assamese, Baluchi, Bengali, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri, Khowar, Lushai, Marathi, Nepali, Oriya, Pali, Pashto, Persian, Rajasthani, Sanskrit, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, Torwali and Urdu.
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    Senior Member
    Nederlands / Dutch (Belgium)

    Shabdkosh | शब्दकोश : English Hindi Dictionary and Translation - English-Hindi
    Shabdkosh | शब्दकोश : English Hindi Dictionary and Translation - English-Hindi (downloadable)
    The Oxford Hindi-English dictionary - Oxford Hindi-English dictionary

    Phrase Books:
    Learn Hindi Online - a collection of phrases

    Writing: - transliterates to Hindi characters - converts script from Devanagri to Indic
    giitaayan - Hindi Songs Lyrics - a resource for viewing Hindi songs in Devanagri
    Urdu page - explanation of Devanagri letters and Nastaliq (ie Arabic) letters
    Hindi Script Tutor - An interactive tutor of the Devanagari script and pronunciations.
    Urdu-Hindi Transliteration/Translation System :: Default Page Romanization tool, and transliteration between Urdu and Hindi.

    Online Lessons: free lessons of Hindi, with audio. New! - a basic course in Hindi
    Faculty at the Maxwell School of Syracuse University - course provided by Syracuse University
    Learn Hindi Language - provides Hindi tutorials
    Best Hindi Websites - another Hindi beginners site
    A Door Into Hindi by Afroz Taj - Online lessons with accompanying videos.

    Grammar: - overview of Hindi grammar
    Outline of Hindi Grammar : R. S. McGregor : Free Download, Borrow, and Streaming : Internet Archive The McGregor grammar

    Hindi Lesson 1Ukindia - learn how to read Hindi

    Miscellaneous: - resources for intermediate Hindi, how to display Hindi in unicode - A blog featuring daily podcasts which teach basic Hindi vocabulary and pronunciation.
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    Senior Member
    Nederlands / Dutch (Belgium)

    Dictionaries: -Dehxodaa's loghatnaameh -Moin's Farhang-e Farsi -Farsidic (English-Persian-English) - English-Persian (both directions) - English-Persian (left); Persian-English (right) - Comprehensive Perisan-English dictionary including the Arabic words and phrases to be met with in Persian literature English- Persian (both directions) - German-Persian (both directions) - German-Persian (both directions) - Rusian-Persian (both directions) - English-Persian Dictionary English-Persian/Persian-English dictionary English-Persin dictionary for commercial terms Persian, French, Italian Spanish (both directions)

    Online Courses: - Very good method for learning Persian, basic to intermediate - Spanish translation of the above (but only a third of the lessons are translated)
    (other links available through these sites) - Basic course - Persian course of Iraj Bashiri - Persian for Russian speakers (part one). Its homepage links to more things. - Persian for Japanese speakers - Persian course in five levels of elementary to advanced - Learn Persian today! - Modern Persian Spoken and Written - a textbook with audio for students of all ages - Intermediate Tajiki Persian textbook from the University of Indiana (need register to access) - Stanmore classes. The course duration is 40 weeks. Class Notes and supporting material may be found there. Lessons covering several levels.

    grammar and phonology. Uses transliteration for examples. - basic grammar in French. Warning: Seems to deal with both colloquial and formal language forms - "Academic grammar" (Persian, English, German)Übersicht - Wiki-book (in German) - Wiki-book (English) - introduction (Russian, PDF) - The largest and most complete English grammar of Persian, "A Higher Persian Grammar", by D. C. Phillott,M1 - An old grammar of the Persian Language, by Meerza Mohammad Ibraheem

    About Persian: A guide to reading Persian

    Software: - Persian verb conjugator - Persian convertor. Converts the Persian written in a defined transliteration scheme into Persian script - Online Persian keyboard

    Free Persian Library

    Writing: - Romanization of Persian Thread with suggested online and printed resources to learn Nastaliq script and writing.

    Others: - Various articles about the Iranian languages (in Russian, links to PDF files) - BBC news in Persian
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    Senior Member
    Nederlands / Dutch (Belgium)

    Dictionaries: - English-Punjabi-English
    Punjabi(Gurmukhi,Shahmukhi) to English Dictionary:: ACTDPL Punjabi University, Patiala Punjabi-English Dictionary online version - Punjabi University, Patiala, India (Romanized, Shahmukhi and Gurmukhi supported, with audio pronunciation samples).

    Online courses:
    Online Punjabi Teaching (Punjabi University, Patiala, India, Advanced Centre for Technical Development of Punjabi Language, Literature and Culture). - vocabulary, ortography and more

    Learn Gurmukhi_____(APNA) Academy of The Punjab in North America - teaches the Gurmukhi script for those who know Shahmukhi KeyBoard.pdf - phonetic keyboard for typing in Punjabi (Shahmukhi script) - transliterates to Punjabi characters

    Reading: - learn how to read Punjabi
    ukindia punjabi lesson 1 - learn how to read Punjabi

    Miscellaneous: List of online resources to learn Punjabi, including tools for typing, proofreading, translation and transliteration
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    Senior Member
    Nederlands / Dutch (Belgium)

    Dictionary: - Sanskrit-English (click on "Sanskrit dictionary" to start Java) - Sanskrit-French - French-Sanskrit (downloadable), with interactive grammar - two Sanskrit-English dictionaries - Sanskrit-English - Sanskrit-English (both directions), focus on daily communication -English-Sanskrit, Tamil

    Vocabulary: - glossaries of most common words

    : - transliterates to Sanskrit characters - a primer in Grantha characters

    Courses: - lessons for self-study - ancient Sanskrit lessons

    Miscellaneous: - a digital library with primary texts in Sanskrit (free registration needed)
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    Senior Member
    Nederlands / Dutch (Belgium)

    Online course: - Introductory Urdu, volume 1 - Introductory Urdu, volume 2

    Dictionaries: English-Urdu Dictionary and Lessons - a browseable and searchable English dictionary (both directions), also Word of the Day
    Urdu - English Dictionary - alphabetical dictionary, Urdu-English only - alphabetical dictionary, English-Urdu only - alphabetical dictionary, Urdu-English only
    Comprehensive English Urdu Dictionary with Advance Search | English Urdu Dictionary انگریزی اردو لغت - Urdu-English; English-Urdu
    Urdu dictionary, Urdu poetry, shayaris, ghazals, urdu prose, english urdu dictionary, learning urdu, urdu language, urdu verses, urdu words, Shayari, Urdu Shayari, Hindi Shayari, Urdu Ghazal, Ghazal - Urdu-English
    A dictionary of Urdu, classical Hindi, and English. - comprehensive (but dated) etymological Hindi/Urdu dictionary ever. -&nbsp Resources and Information. - Urdu Dictionary (monolingual)
    Feroz - ul - Lughat (Jame) By Maulvi Ferozuddin (r.a) : islamicbookslibrary : Free Download & Streaming : Internet Archive - Feroz-ul-Lughat Urdu dictionary (monolingual)
    Urdu Encyclopedia اردو دائرۃ معارف العلوم - نو مولود - Urdu Encyclopedia (monolingual)
    Internet Archive Search: creator:"Amad Dihlav, Sayyid, 1846-1918" - Farhang-e-Asafiyyah Urdu dictionary (monolingual)
    القاموس الجدید - Urdu-Arabic
    مصباح اللغات - Arabic-Urdu
    القاموس الوحید - Arabic-Urdu
    المنجد - Arabic-Urdu
    کنزاللغات - Arabic-Urdu-English
    فیروز اللغات - Persian-Urdu
    فرہنگ امثال - Arabic and Persian sayings, poetry, expressions, etc. commonly used in Urdu
    Qaumi English Urdu Dictionary
    Urdu Dictionary & Translations | Oxford Dictionaries Oxford Urdu-English dictionary (with diacritics).

    Learn Urdu online - useful phrases
    Urdu Phrases (Moved Now) - useful phrases (also in the Urdu script) - for tourists

    Ukindia Learn Urdu Page - learn how to read Urdu - readings (prose, poetry)
    Urdu Poetry, Urdu Shayari of Famous Poets - Rekhta Urdu poetry and literature, available in Urdu and Devanagrai scripts and in romanization

    Persian, Urdu: Learning Nastaliq Thread with suggested online and printed resources to learn Nastaliq script and writing.
    Google ان پٹ ٹولز آن لائن آزمائیں – Google ان پٹ ٹولز Transliteration tool Roman/Urdu
    Urdu-Hindi Transliteration/Translation System :: Default Page Another romanization tool, and transliteration between Urdu and Hindi.

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