My authority (Alfred Ewart, The French Language, Faber 1966) says that "originally ne was used without an accompanying particle, but very early it began to be strengthened by the addition of a substantive or an adverb" (my emphasis). The examples he gives are all from Low Latin or German, so I guess he means the Early Middle Ages, around 600-1000 AD....Those negations are a wee bit more recent than mediaeval, they date from the Renaissance, when French grammar became codified...
Yes, I do, and I was about to post something about this, but the post was deleted (not by me), so I thought that comment must have been off-topic.did you know that je n'y vois goutte was originally copied from je ne bois goutte - I don't drink a drop
At the same time, cram1993 is right, in the sense that all verbs were like pouvoir in earlier stages of French. As you and Aupick have both explained, in ne dit mot, the negation is expressed by ne alone. Mot reinforces the negation, but its primary syntactic function is realizing the direct object of the verb dit. In other words, it corresponds more closely to rien than to pas. It was never possible to say, for example, Il ne dit mot son nom to mean something like Il ne dit pas/point son nom.Not quite, Cram, because pouvoir is a special case.
Not earlier than the 12th century for French.The examples he gives are all from Low Latin or German, so I guess he means the Early Middle Ages, around 600-1000 AD.
I know that many people believe this, but there doesn't seem to be any good evidence for it. The usual assumption is that ne boire goutte became ne voir goutte because the verbs sound so similar, but in fact the verbs sounded completely different in Old French (beivre vs. vedeir), except in the 3rd sing. pres. ind. (which is admittedly a frequent form). More problematically, according to Price (1990, 1997), there are no examples of goutte used with boire in any Old French texts. His alternative proposal is that ne voir goutte is a variant of another attested expression, ne voir larme (i.e. "I can't see the tears in my own eyes, it's so dark").did you know that je n'y vois goutte was originally copied from je ne bois goutte - I don't drink a drop ?
If 'mot' is used restrictively, than the translation becomes...."Qui ne dit mot consent" uses a restriction form because only quiet people agree.
Nenni, Nilak. Like Nicosito and jann already said, the clause Qui ne dit mot is not a restriction but a negation, pure and simple."Qui ne dit mot consent" uses a restriction form because only quiet people agree.