Full, plein, ...

Discussion in 'All Languages' started by ThomasK, Apr 28, 2013.

  1. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    How do you translate
    - full
    - to fill
    - to fulfil ?

    I suppose it is an important word. Do you see it turn up in special ways? Such as in Dutch as a prefix: vol- (as in vervullen, fulfil, volmaakt, perfect, voltooien, to finish)?

    I think I see something similar in Romanic languages or Latin: the pl- turns up very often, as in compleet, implement, ..., but of course that is simply the root of the word as such.
  2. apmoy70

    apmoy70 Senior Member

    In Greek:

    1/ Adj. «πλήρης, -ης, -ες» ['pliris] (masc. & fem.), ['plires] (neut.) --> full, complete < Classical adj. «πλήρης, -ης, πλῆρες» plḗrēs (masc. & fem.), plêrĕs (neut.) --> full, complete (PIE *plā-, to fill, complete cf Lat. plērus, Proto-Germanic *fol > Ger. vol, Eng. full).
    2/ Adj. «γεμάτος, -τη, -το» [ʝe'matos] (masc.), [ʝe'mati] (fem.), [ʝe'mato] (neut.) --> to be filled, be full of < Byz. adj. «γεμᾶτος» gemâtos < Classical verb «γέμω» gémō --> to stuff, to be full of (PIE *gem-, to take, seize).

    To fill:

    1/ «Γεμίζω» [ʝe'mizo] < Classical v. «γέμω» gémō (see above).
    2/ «Πληρώ» [pli'ro] < Classical v. «πληρόω/πληρῶ» plēróō (uncontracted) / plērô (contracted) (PIE *plā-, to fill, complete)

    To fulfil:

    «Εκπληρώ» [ekpli'ro] (and «εκπληρώνω» [ekpli'rono]) < Classical verb «ἐκπληρόω/ἐκπληρῶ» ĕkplēróō (uncontracted) / ĕkplērô (contracted) --> to fill up, fulfil (prefix, preposition & adverb «ἐκ» ĕk --> out (PIE *h₁eḱ-s-, out) + Classical v. «πληρόω/πληρῶ»).
    For making something perfect/finishing/ending see here.
    With «πληρῶ» (or MG «πληρώνω») as second component in compounds, we form many verbs:
    «Συμ-πληρώνω» [simbli'rono] --> to supplement
    «Απο-πληρώνω» [apopli'rono] --> to repay*
    «Προ-πληρώνω» [propli'rono] --> to prepay

    *Note that in MG the v. pay, is the Byzantine version of the Classical «πληρόω/πληρῶ» plēróō (uncontracted) / plērô (contracted):
    «πληρόω/πληρῶ» (to fill up, fulfil) > Byz. «πληρώνω» (to pay)
  3. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    That reminded me of pleroma, fullness, abundance. Can you use that in some modern sense?

    As for /gem/ vs. /pler/: are they used in a different way? Is /gem/ less... pleasant (stuffed) ? I cannot find a link with some word in English, or German. Can you ?
    Last edited: Apr 28, 2013
  4. arielipi Senior Member

    full - מלא male[=lots/full], הרבה harbe [=lots]
    to fill - למלא lemale
    to fulfill - לממש lemamesh, להגשים lehagshim, למלא lemale, לבצע levatze'a, להוציא לפועל lehotzi lapo'al.
  5. apmoy70

    apmoy70 Senior Member

    Yes, «πλήρωμα» is the crew, e.g. the personnel who operate an aircraft (aircrew) is its «πλήρωμα». The Church also has a «πλήρωμα».
    No I wouldn't say that /gem/ is less pleasant, it's neutral in reality. But...when is used as a characteristic of people (i.e. "he's γεμάτος, she's γεμάτη) it's a euphemistic way of saying that someone is obese.
    PIE *gem- > Proto-Germanic *kembula- > Ger. Bündel
    Last edited: Apr 28, 2013
  6. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    Perfect answers, thank you. But the Church pleroma: is that the theological term, I referred to. --- The /gem/ meaning is new to me: we'd never call them full ;-).
  7. Outsider Senior Member

    Portuguese (Portugal)
    In Portuguese:

    - full: cheio < L. plenus; there's also the cultism pleno
    - to fill: encher < L. implere, a cognate of the former.
    - to fulfil Generally cumprir < L. complere or satisfazer < L. satisfacere.


    - to fill out/in (e.g. a form, or gaps in a written test): preencher, again a cognate of cheio (pre + encher).
  8. arielipi Senior Member

    Thanks for reminding me of another one: to fill out/in (either spaces, gaps etc) להשלים lehashlim למלא lemale.
    lehashlim is to 'fill/put missing pieces in place'. also it is used for 'make peace'

    לממש lemamesh to implement,
    להגשים lehagshim to true the actions(to make/do them),
    למלא lemale to fill,
    לבצע levatze'a to do,
    להוציא לפועל lehotzi lapo'al to make.
  9. ahmedcowon Senior Member

    In Arabic:

    full: ملئ /malee'/
    fill (verb): ملأ /mala'a/
    to fill (prep.+adj.): لملء /lemal'/
    fulfill (verb): أوفى /awfa/ or أتم /atamma/
  10. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    Does it have the 'rich' meanings in Arabic too, Ahmed? And do /awfa/ and /atamma/ have the same root as /malee/? I guess not, or do they refer to filling as well?
  11. arielipi Senior Member

    Even more in hebrew:
    satiate is also מלא mile (lemale).
    To become full (or to be filled with X [such as happiness, fear etc]) is להתמלא lehitmale.
    Note become full of himself doesnt apply here.
    למלא lemale can be used as follow (orders,commands and likes) - the rational is to fulfill the command.
  12. apmoy70

    apmoy70 Senior Member

    In Greek the two verbs (fill vs satiate) are of different roots:
    Satiate: «Χορταίνω» [xor'teno] < Classical verb «χορτάζω» kʰŏrtázō --> to fatten (of cattle), to be full of food (of persons) < Classical masc. noun «χόρτος» kʰórtŏs --> green crop, pasturage (PIE *ǵʰer-, to grasp, enclose cf Lat. hortus > It. orto, Sp. huerto, Port. horto; OI gort > Ir. gort; OCS градъ > Rus./Bul. град; Proto-Germanic *gardaz > Dut. gaart, Eng. yard).
    The expression I'm sated, is in Greek, «χόρτασα» ['xortasa] (aorist, 1st person sing. active voice, ind.).
    Metaphorically, when someone is sated by -let's say, happiness, s/he is «χορτασμένος, - μένη» [xortaz'menos] (present tense, masc. passive participle), [xortaz'meni] (present tense, fem. passive participle).
    Colloquially, when someone has lived life to the fullest, is described as being «χορτάτος, - τη» [xor'tatos] (masc. elative), [xor'tati] (fem. elative), meaning very sated.
    Last edited: Apr 30, 2013
  13. mataripis

    mataripis Senior Member

    Here are the Tagalog words for 1.)Full = Puno' 2.) to fill = Punuan/Punan and 3.)to fulfill= Maisagawa /maisakatuparan.
  14. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    So no link between 1-2 and 3 ?
  15. mataripis

    mataripis Senior Member

    1 and 2 only.
  16. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    But then: what is the root of 3? I see maisa in both (and gawa in one ?)...
  17. bibax Senior Member

    Czech (Prague)

    full: plný/plný/полный (root pln-, poln- related to Skr. purna = full, complete)
    to fill: plniti/plniť/наполнять with various prefixes

    to fulfil: splniti (vyplniti)/splniť/исполнить (выполнить)
  18. mataripis

    mataripis Senior Member

    maisa in "maisagawa" and "maisakatuparan" means "to make the task happen/accomplish". Gawa ( a root word meaning work) here is (done) and Katuparan is (fulfill/happen) with root word "Tupad". Ma as in "Magawa" (can do) and Ma-isa gawa is task + can do.
    Last edited: May 4, 2013
  19. aruniyan Senior Member

    mulu - Total, Completely.

    nirai - Fully filled, Full of, Packed up fully, To fill up
    niraivu, niraivErru - Fullfill, mana niraivu - satisfied.
  20. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    Thanks, A! But could you go into this difference? Is mulu an adverb, nirai an adj., or does the difference have to do with being literally full and being complete, which are parallel meanings of course though they could be distinguished. At least there is no etymological link between the two, I guess. Strange though that mulu is not used in other combinations, or is it?
    Last edited: May 6, 2013
  21. aruniyan Senior Member

    The better word for Mulu is whole, so adjective.

    for example முழுமதி (referring the full moon),

    nirai -as verb, to fill, interesting niraivu can be used for finished and niraya used for too many
  22. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    I see, though somehow it remains complex. Could anyone mix up the two? Do you consider them linked semantically?
  23. arielipi Senior Member

    Mix up which two?
  24. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    I meant mulu and nirai in Tamil... -- As for Hebrew, arielipi, do you use the same word for 'complete' as for 'full', like in Tamil?
  25. arielipi Senior Member

    we can, though another root is more common for complete. ש-ל-מ sh-l-m is more used for whole,complete than מ-ל-א m-l-a.
    מלא can be full, complete, whole.
    Last edited: May 6, 2013
  26. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    oh,oh, do I recognize the root for shalom in it ? It reminds of me of pleroma in Greek, but I thought of eirènè when reading the term 'shalom'... Is shalom considered to be some kind of fullness, abundance, then in Hebrew??? Interesting...
  27. arielipi Senior Member

    Yes indeed, from hebrew wiktionary it gives the following synonyms and the following origin behind shalom:
    גיזרון gizron (similar to class as in classification) : from[=of] the word shalem[=whole, complete], being shalem, that is not damaged.

    פיוס piyus (optional: making) peace
    שקט sheket quiet[=spiritual peace, relaxation]
    מנוחה, נחת menukha, nakhat rest, restness.
    ביטחון, פיוס bitakhon, piyus secureness, making peace
    היי hi.

    not abundance though.

    What is pleroma? and eirènè?

    EDIT: about the interesting part you said; i may be stretching it but many cultures view one as complete only once he is at peace with himself and others; perhaps it delivers the same here.

    EDIT 2: another use of it from the same root (and of the same use, as there can be multiple non-related roots of the same letters) is for payment.
    Last edited: May 6, 2013
  28. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    Pleroma is abundance in Greek, I think, eirènè is peace.

    Very interesting: shalem and whole, heal, heil, health (Dutch helen, etc.) are linked... Had not thought of that, had thought of fullness, but that is not quite the same...
  29. arielipi Senior Member

    Thats a really good example of language shaping our way of thinking, because to me it was clear from the beginning.
  30. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    Well, I did see the fullness in complete (-pl-), but it is not the same kind of fullness as the one we refer to when talking about bottles or glasses. Though in the context of a group, we could use the word 'volledig' (full-membered) instead of 'complete' and then there is a direct link with the word at least.

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