Georgian: ghvino (ღვინო) - wine

AndrasBP

Senior Member
Hungarian
The Georgian word for wine, ღვინო /ɣwino/ seems to be related to the form "vino", found in many European languages and deriving from Latin vinum.
Is "ɣwino" borrowed from an Indo-European language? If so, is it possible to determine when that happened and from which source language?

(The letter (IPA: ɣ) is a voiced velar fricative.)
 
  • The most obvious candidate is proto-Armenian (Martirosyan HK · 2010 · Etymological dictionary of the Armenian inherited lexicon: 214–215). The attested Old Armenian forms are gini and gin- (գինի - Wiktionary). In the prehistoric times, Armenian experienced the reduction of the final syllable and the shift of the word-initial *u̯>g, so the intermediate γw- fits here very well (cp. Germanic *warda > Romance guarda warda - Wiktionary). The root vowel must have come from *i~ī (since *eı̯ and *oı̯>ē).

    Another such word is Old Armenian gi "juniper" : Georgian γwia (ღვია - Wiktionary — Martirosyan: 211-212).
     

    francisgranada

    Senior Member
    Hungarian
    ... the shift of the word-initial *u̯>g, so the intermediate γw- fits here very well ...
    This could explain why win- (not vin-) in Germanic, oin- in Greek, vin- in Latin (the Latin letter "V" represented rather a semivowel, perhaps approximately pronounced like the English w), etc ...

    Some etymological dictionaries I consulted many times ago, declared this word of "Mediterranean origin". I.e. of uncertain, possibly not IE, origin ... Others tried to find connection of this word with Lat. vitis, Sanscrit venas, even with Lat. Venus, etc ... Does it make sense even from the point of view of "modern" etymology?
     

    rushalaim

    Senior Member
    русский
    This could explain why win- (not vin-) in Germanic, oin- in Greek, vin- in Latin (the Latin letter "V" represented rather a semivowel, perhaps approximately pronounced like the English w)
    Ancient-Greek was woinos. I assume, that was the origin.
     

    fdb

    Senior Member
    French (France)
    There seems to be evidence that wine production originated in Georgia. There is a case for seeing the local (Georgian or pre-Georgian) name as the ultimate source of the IE and Semitic words.
     

    rushalaim

    Senior Member
    русский
    I think, Hebrew יון [yawan] was taken from Greek "Ionia", and Hebrew יין [yain] "wine" was derived from וין [wain]. Perhaps, "Ionia" and "woinos" were related. Historians are saying Greeks had a triad: wine, olives, wheat in their colonies.
     

    fdb

    Senior Member
    French (France)
    “Wine” is a prehistoric wander word occurring not only in Indo-European, but also in Semitic: Arabic wayn, Sabaic WYN /wayn/, also (with the NW-Semitic shift of w- to y-) Hebrew yayin, and some others. Sabaic also has YYN, which must be a borrowing from NW-Semitic.
     
    Anatolian has the following forms: Hittite u̯iı̯an- "wine", Cuneiform Luwian u̯iniı̯as "of wine" (relational adjective), Hieroglyphic Luwian u̯iı̯anis (Nom. Sg.), u̯inin (Acc. Sg.) "wine", all pointing to *u̯ihₑon-~u̯ihₑn- (Kloekhorst A · 2008 · Etymological dictionary of the Hittite inherited lexicon: 1012). The Latin form vīnum is derivable either from an o-grade *u̯oı̯hₑnom, like in Greek (with the same change as in *u̯oı̯daı̯>vīdī), or from an e-grade *u̯eı̯hₑnom, or from a zero-grade *ihₑnom. The Armenian words, as I had written, imply i or ī in the root, hence *u̯ihₑnos~*u̯ihₑnom suits very well. Thus, even if the original word had been borrowed into an early form of Indo-European, it was adapted to the Indo-European ablaut, perhaps to the root Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/weh₁y- - Wiktionary, with the usual metathesis of laryngeals (cp. bʰeu̯H- in most instances, but remnants of *bʰeHu- in e. g. Greek φύσις, φυτόν < *bʰHut-, Old East Slavic -ba̋vitь and Sanskrit bhāvayati < *bʰoHu̯-).

    The Slavic *víno is a (Latin? Germanic?) loan, judging from the non-acute intonation (the inherited form should have been **vı̋no, Russian **ви́но), as is the Lithuanian vỹnas (if inherited, it should have been **výnas). The Germanic word is ambiguous, but probably loaned as there was no wine in the original Germanic area.

    The Latin Venus is unrelated: it comes from Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/wenh₁- - Wiktionary.
     
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    AndrasBP

    Senior Member
    Hungarian
    There seems to be evidence that wine production originated in Georgia. There is a case for seeing the local (Georgian or pre-Georgian) name as the ultimate source of the IE and Semitic words.
    A Georgian once told me that, but I didn't believe him. I thought it was just wishful thinking.

    “Wine” is a prehistoric wander word occurring not only in Indo-European, but also in Semitic:
    Anatolian has the following forms: Hittite u̯iı̯an- "wine", Cuneiform Luwian u̯iniı̯as "of wine" (relational adjective), Hieroglyphic Luwian u̯iı̯anis (Nom. Sg.), u̯inin (Acc. Sg.) "wine",
    I'm not knowledgeable about IE historical phonology, but based on geographical proximity, is it possible that the Proto-Georgian word was borrowed into Anatolian languages, and then it reached Greek and Semitic?
     
    I'm not knowledgeable about IE historical phonology, but based on geographical proximity, is it possible that the Proto-Georgian word was borrowed into Anatolian languages, and then it reached Greek and Semitic?
    The literature I have seen (including the PIE studies by Gamkrelidze, himself a specialist in Kartvelian languages) advocates the opposite direction: to Kartvelian (e. g. Gamkrelidze TV, Ivanov VV · 1995 · Indo-European and the Indo-Europeans.pdf: II, 560 = page 639 of the pdf). Besides this, the cluster ɣw would have been borrowed to Proto-Indo-European or any ancient Indo-European language as gu̯, gʰu̯ or Hu̯, not as u̯.
     
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    Vojvoda

    Banned
    Serbian
    The Serbian word for wine is "vino"... Observing the appearance and growth of the grape plant, grapevine or just vine
    it can be seen that gowing high, twisting and wrapping usually around a tree... Here are a few Serbian words that I think have to do with the word "vino" and plant properties:
    vinuti - to rise, to go high
    vijati - to go around
    uvijati - to twist
    navijati - winding
    vijak - screw
    navoj - screw thread
    loza - vine, screw thread
    vuna - wool (making thread by twisting wool)
     
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    Stoggler

    Senior Member
    UK English
    Vino is simply a borrowing of the Latin word vinum. The other words have nothing to do with that word. Have you looked the etymologies up in a dictionary?
     

    Vojvoda

    Banned
    Serbian
    Noun winding
    From wind +‎ -ing, from wind (“to wrap”).
    • Something wound around something else.
    • Curving or bending movement, twists and turns.
    Adjective
    winding
    1. Twisting, turning or sinuous.
    2. Spiral or helical.
    From wind +‎ -ing, from wind (“movement of air”), as the wind was used to assist turning.

    Serbian:
    zavijati - "to wrap", "wind blowing", "howling" (“movement of air”)
    From za + vijati "to go around"
     

    Vojvoda

    Banned
    Serbian
    Vino is simply a borrowing of the Latin word vinum. The other words have nothing to do with that word. Have you looked the etymologies up in a dictionary?
    Latin language is much younger then wine and wine is younger then vine (plant).
     

    Vojvoda

    Banned
    Serbian
    Proto-Indo-European
    *wéyh₁ō
    • wine
    • vine


    Root
    *weh₁y-


    • to twist, wind, weave, plait
    • to wrap, enclose, cover
    Serbian vuna - wool (making thread by twisting wool)


    *uh₁y-éye-ti (“to wrap, plait”, zero-grade causative)
    • Indo-Iranian: *uHyáyati
      • Indo-Aryan: *uHyáyati
        • Sanskrit: व्ययति (vyáyati)
    Serbian:
    vinuti - to rise, to go high
    vijati - to go around
    uvijati - to twist
    navijati - winding
    vijak - screw
     
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    OBrasilo

    Senior Member
    Brazil, Brazilian Portuguese
    If you looked at the etymology, you'd notice that Serbian vuna comes from a word with a l, and for example, there's still a in Slovenian (volna), and the word is cognated to English wool and Latin lana (wl -> l seems to be a common change in Latin, see also wlkwe -> lupus).
     
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