Grundschule vs. Hochschule vs. Gymnasium

shaden99

New Member
Farsi - Iran
Hi guys. I just saw this question:
Wo hat Sandra das Abitur gemacht?
a. in der Grundschule.
b. am Gymnasium.


I'm completely confused. How many German high schools are there?
I've seen
1. Grundschule
2. Gymnasium
3. Hochschule
Is there any difference???

Can you guys please name all of the types of the schools and options that people have after "Grundschule"???

It would be a big help.
And it would be great if you guys explain the difference between "hochschule" and "Universität".
Thanks a lot.
 
  • Kajjo

    Senior Member
    Grundschule
    primary school for years of age 6-9, first four years of education, for all pupils together.

    Gymnasium
    Gymnasium = high school for years of age starting with 10-18 (typically 19 when finishing the school year), selected for the more talented pupils. School education ends after 13 years of school. Afterwards you may study at university.

    Realschule for years starting with 10-15 (typically 16 when finishing the school year), selected for less talented pupils. Schools ends after 10 years of school. Afterwards typically apprenticeships or the like are started.

    Hauptschule for years 10-14 (typically 15 when finishing the school year), selected for little talented pupils. Schools ends after 9 years of school.

    3. Hochschule
    German term mostly for university. There are different types of Hochschule, but they are roughly comparable to international university education.

    And it would be great if you guys explain the difference between "hochschule" and "Universität".
    A "wissenschaftliche Hochschule" is identical to university with option for doctorate degrees (ph.D.) and habilitation and professorship. At a university is done research.

    Other kinds of "Hochschule" like "Fachhochschule" might be higher education, but without research or overall less level of sophistication.
     
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    shaden99

    New Member
    Farsi - Iran
    primary school for years of age 6-9, first four years of education, for all pupils together.


    Gymnasium = high school for years of age starting with 10-18 (typically 19 when finishing the school year), selected for the more talented pupils. School education ends after 13 years of school. Afterwards you may study at university.

    Realschule for years starting with 10-15 (typically 16 when finishing the school year), selected for less talented pupils. Schools ends after 10 years of school. Afterwards typically apprenticeships or the like are started.

    Hauptschule for years 10-14 (typically 15 when finishing the school year), selected little talented pupils. Schools ends after 9 years of school.


    German term mostly for university. The are different types of Hochschule, but they are roughly comparable to international university education.


    A "wissenschaftliche Hochschule" is identical to university with option for doctorate degrees (ph.D.) and habilitation and professorship. At a university is done research.

    Other kinds of "Hochschule" like "Fachhochschule" might be higher education, but without research or overall less level of sophistication.
    Thankssss a lot. All of my problems with these words are suddenly gone! 😍😍😍😍
    just one more question. I also mentioned "Grundschule". Is it the synonym for Hauptschule?
     

    Hutschi

    Senior Member
    In Germany, each "Bundesland" (state) may have differences because education is defined basically by the states.

    So the start and end times may be different.

    In some stateses there is also a "Gesamtschule", in others not.

    There Hauptschule, Realschule, Gymnasium are in the same building. For the education itself, there are different models in the states.

    It is "Gesamtschule" similar as Comprehensive school - Wikipedia but not exactly the same.

    Hauptschule:
    (Hauptschule – Wikipedia. )
    Hauptschule bezeichnet in Deutschland eine allgemeinbildende Schulform der mittleren Bildung, also auf dem Level 2 nach ISCED-Klassifikation der UNESCO.

    In Germany, "Hauptschule" refers to a general school form of intermediate education, i.e. at level 2 according to UNESCO's ISCED classification.

    I disagree that the students/pupils are not talented there. They do just not have the talent for higher education. Some are also "hyper-intelligent" and so they miss higher levels. But this is an exception.


    ---
    Studying at a university usually requires Abitur (or sometimes similar things or experiences.)
    The direct way is learning (studying) at a gymnasium. (You already know this from Kajjo.)
    There are some other ways, like evening school.

    edit: country replaced by "state". (see #8)
     
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    JClaudeK

    Senior Member
    Français France, Deutsch (SW-Dtl.)
    Here a graphic of the German education system:

    Screenshot 2022-05-21 at 15-11-12 School system & compulsory education.png

    Quelle: Education System in Germany - The German School System

    Edit:
    Wo hat Sandra das Abitur gemacht?
    b. am Gymnasium :tick:
     
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    Hutschi

    Senior Member
    I agree if we consider that the picture shows the principle, omitting a lot and has not the true times in years.

    It may be relevant if you move to Germany with your children. Each German country state has an own system, based on the one, Claude gave.

    In Saxony, it is much more complex.

    Sächsisches Schulsystem - Schule und Ausbildung - sachsen.de
    https://www.schule.sachsen.de/img/21_08_23_schulsystem_1600_rdax_780x536_87.png

    (I do not know whether I am allowed to copy the picture because of copyright - Urheberrechtsgründe. So I give the link.)

    Abitur is usually after 12. year in school rather than after 13 years)

    edit: country replaced by "state", see #8.
     
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    Hutschi

    Senior Member
    Really? Lower Saxony, North Rhine-Westphalia, Schleswig-Holstein, Hesse, Bavaria and Rhineland-Palatinate all have Abitur after 13 years.
    Sources:
    picture in #7
    additionally:
    https://cms.sachsen.schule/fileadmi...as_Abitur_am_allgemeinbildenden_Gymnasium.pdf

    Das Abitur am allgemeinbildenden Gymnasium Die Jahrgangsstufen 11 und 12
    Seite 3:
    Die gymnasiale Oberstufe umfasst die Jahrgangsstufen 11 und 12. Sie endet mit der Abiturprüfung.

    rough translation

    The "gymnasiale Oberstufe" (these are the additional grades to "Realschule") comprises grades 11 and 12, ending with the Abitur examination.

    This was the case in all eastern states. I do not know exactly how it is today.
    After the unification also the west wanted to introduce 12 years, but there were protests, and so it was not made consistently. The most have 13 years as far as I know.
     

    Hutschi

    Senior Member
    PS:
    I looked in #1 and there is the question: "Can you guys please name all of the types of the schools and options that people have after "Grundschule"???"

    I give additional information about Abitur here:

    Source
    Das Abitur aller Bundesländer im Vergleich (Comparing abitur in the federal states)
    Welches Abitur ist am meisten wert? Eine schwierige Frage!

    Baden-Württemberg G8, Bayern back to G9 until 2024, Berlin G8, Brandenburg G8, Bremen G8, Hamburg G8, Hessen G9, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern G8, Niedersachsen G9, Nordrhein-Westfalen back to G9 until 2025, Rheinland-Pfalz G8, Saarland G8, Sachsen G8, Sachsen-Anhalt G8, Schleswig-Holstein back to G9 until 2025, Thüringen G8

    G8: 12 years
    G9: 13 years

    I could not proof whether all information is correct. But it is incomplete, at least.

    In the following link is a map:

    https://www.bpb.de/system/files/dokument_pdf/G8G9_150902.pdf
    It shows that it also depends on the kind of school.

    They also state that Rheinland Pfalz has 12.5 years. (between G8 and G9)

    ---
    In some (or all?) states you can change to the Gymnasium also later, after 8 ot ten years school. Regularly it is mostly after 5 years. But this may depend on the state.
    ---
    The examinations and their level also depend on the state (Bundesland), even the learning plans (Lehrpläne) are different. It is hardly to compare.
     
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