hamza همزة

Discussion in 'العربية (Arabic)' started by Jana337, Aug 11, 2005.

  1. Jana337

    Jana337 Senior Member

    čeština
    A follow-up of this thread. Daniel, may I offer the rules for writing the hamza which I was taught?

    In most cases, the hamza needs a carrier (I am using a term from my textbooks; Elias used "chair" in the same context).



    AT THE BEGINNING OF WORDS, the alif is an exclusive carrier of the hamza, irrespective of the vowel that follows the hamza. With "a" and "u", the hamza is written above the alif and with "u" below the alif.



    Yes ('ajal) أَجل

    Needle ('ibratun) إِِبرة

    Professor ('ustadh – hope this is the way to transcribe the word) أُستاذ



    IN THE MIDDLE OF WORDS, 3 carriers can occur. Here you need to choose the correct carrier – it depends on the vowels around the hamza. The rule is: The symbol that you use to indicate a long vowel carries the hamza associated with the respective vowel.



    Vocal: a à carrier: alif

    Woman (mar'atun): مرْأَة

    Vocal: i à carrier: yaa that loses its dots, (i.e. not the baa letter as you wrote in the previous thread)

    Questions ('as'ilatun): أَسْئِلة

    Vocal: u à carrier: waw

    Pearl: (lu'lu'un): لُؤْلُؤٌ

    To determine which carrier you are supposed to use, both the vowel before and after the hamza count. I beats U and U beats A:

    When I and U meet, I is stronger and you use yaa as the carrier.

    Example: To be added as soon as I stumble across one

    When U and A meet, U is stronger and you use waw as the carrier.

    Question (su'aalun): سُؤَال



    When I and A meet, I is stronger and you use yaa as the carrier.

    Table (maa'idatun): مَائِدة



    AT THE END OF WORDS, the hamza either stands alone on the line if preceded by a consonant (by a sukuun, formally) or by a long vowel:

    Water (maa'un): ماء

    Thing (shay'un): شيء



    or, if preceded by a short vowel, the hamza is carried by alif, yaa or waw according to the rule explained above:

    News – sing. (naba'un): نبأَ

    Forecast (tanabbu'): تنبّؤ

    No example for "i" at the moment
     
  2. Jana337

    Jana337 Senior Member

    čeština
    Related random thoughts:

    You need not write the hamza at the beginning of words but you have to in the middle and at the end.
    Not all words that start with vowels have hamza ( ابن )
    Articles never have hamza.
    Once you add an article to a word starting with hamza, the hamza shifts in the middle of the word and you must write it.
    Ab ( أب ), father, can also be written ab ( اب ). The only correct way for writing al-‘ab is الآب

    Looking forward to the opinions of natives: Are the rules set forth in my textbook too rigid?

    Jana
     
  3. Jana337

    Jana337 Senior Member

    čeština
    Homework:

    Transcribe (and vocalize):

    Lion (‘asadun)
    Lions (‘usuudun)
    Beginning (ibtidaa’un)
    Israel (‘israa’il)
    Began – the “infinitive” (bada’a)
    Medicine (dawaa’un)
    Splendid (raa’i3un)
    Winter (shitaa’un)
    Algeria (al-jazaa’ir)
    Family (3aa’ilatun)

    Jana
     
  4. elroy

    elroy Sharp-heeled Mod

    Chicago, IL
    US English/Palestinian Arabic bilingual
    Wow! I know how to write it just by feel and familiarity. Having read through the rules, they seem to be right on target. I've only made a few remarks:

     
  5. elroy

    elroy Sharp-heeled Mod

    Chicago, IL
    US English/Palestinian Arabic bilingual
    I don't agree that leaving out the hamza in the middle of a word is always incorrect. In everyday writing, people leave it out all the time when it is supposed to appear on an alef in the middle of the word [you can NEVER leave it out if it's on a waw, on a chair, or at the end of a word]. I think that rule applies only to formal contexts, in which I would agree that leaving it out would be clumsy.

    I don't think the rules are too rigid. If you didn't follow them you wouldn't write correctly.
     
  6. Whodunit

    Whodunit Senior Member

    กรุงเทพมหานคร
    Deutschland ~ Deutsch/Sächsisch


    Jana, I especially liked that you used fine Arabic, i.e. case endings like the nominative. :thumbsup:
     
  7. Jana337

    Jana337 Senior Member

    čeština
    :confused: I too would think that natives are taught these rules... I had to learn many rules in Czech and I hated it because - as a voracious reader - I could always rely on my memory.

    Jana
     
  8. elroy

    elroy Sharp-heeled Mod

    Chicago, IL
    US English/Palestinian Arabic bilingual
    You didn't know that those rules exist or not how they work? I learned it exactly how Jana explained it.
    I knew some rules must exist, and of course I knew how they worked. I was just saying that I was never taught this rigid ;) set of rules but rather know how to write the hamza by feel and familiarity. I know if it's correct or not just by whether it looks right or wrong. Furthermore, I went to an American school where Arabic was not taught rigorously (and that's an understatement), so even if these rules are taught to "most" Arabs that doesn't mean I learned them.

    Quote:
    In most cases, the hamza needs a carrier (I am using a term from my textbooks; Elias used “chair” in the same context). Not every carrier is a chair. The "chair" appears only in the middle of a word and looks like a ba without a dot. Nevertheless it's a yaa without the "under-dots", but with a hamza on top instead.

    What's in a name? That which we call a rose by any other name would smell as sweet.

    AT THE BEGINNING OF WORDS, the alif is an exclusive carrier of the hamza, irrespective of the vowel that follows the hamza. With “a” and “u”, the hamza is written above the alif and with “i” below the alif. Good catch!

    I'd transcribe it "2ustaadh". "Dh" reminds me of ض or ظ.

    Vocal: i à carrier: yaa that loses its dots, (i.e. not the baa letter as you wrote in the previous thread) Well, I said "baa without a dot," which is essentially the same symbol. In Arabic we call it the "hamza chair." Maybe the same symbol, but not the same idea: We "hamzalize" the English "ee-sound" or somthing like that, so we put the hamza above a yaa. Tell me, if I'm wrong.
    Yes, you're right. But no one calls it "a yaa without two dots" or "a baa without a dot." We call it the "hamza chair." I said "baa without a dot" to explain what I meant by that. I could have also said "nuun without a dot." The advantage of saying "a yaa without two dots" is that the origin of the chair is explained, but any description serves the same purpose, as far as explaining how it needs to be written.


    To determine which carrier you are supposed to use, both the vowel before and after the hamza count. I beats U and U beats A: THIS rule I never learned. :confused: Very interesting. It's a very important one, though.

     
  9. elroy

    elroy Sharp-heeled Mod

    Chicago, IL
    US English/Palestinian Arabic bilingual
    Again, I wouldn't know because my education was atypical. However, I can assure you that any writer of Arabic "knows" these rules, whether he's been formally taught them or not.
     
  10. Whodunit

    Whodunit Senior Member

    กรุงเทพมหานคร
    Deutschland ~ Deutsch/Sächsisch
    Again my answer in double and triple quotes: (is that an English saying?)

     
  11. toubar Member

    Egypt - Arabic
    Dear friends,

    I would like to facilitate the usage of initial Hamza as follows:

    1)- All substantives & names of persons/places/materials/things when start with alef, a hamza MUST be written. (أستاذ + أحمد + أستراليا + ألومنيوم + أرجوحة)
    2)- ابن - امرأة - يوم الاثنين are written without initial hamza on alef.
    3)- آخرون - الآن - الآخر (called alef mamdouda)
    4)- أخرى - أخير (normal hamza)
    5)- ONLY quadruple-origin verbs/gerund/substantives (أسماء وأفعال مصدرها الفعل الرباعي) must take initial hamza. (إنتاج + إيمان)
    6)- When one speaks (first pronoun): (أنا (أسأل / أمسكت / أرى / أصون

    7)- That means: all triple/quintet/sextet origin verbs/gerund/substantives (أسماء وأفعال مصدرها الفعل الثلاثي أو الخماسي أو السداسي) must NOT take initial hamza. (استثمار + ادخار + ارتفاع + اقتصاد)


    ***There are 3 kinds of alef (أ - آ - إ ): one has to write the right hamza according to the (right) pronunciation of the word.
    *** By the way, a few Arabic native-speakers is following such rules.

    I hope it's clear by now.

    Regards,

    REDA TOUBAR
     
  12. elroy

    elroy Sharp-heeled Mod

    Chicago, IL
    US English/Palestinian Arabic bilingual
    It's a line from Shakespeare. The basic thrust is that it doesn't matter what we call it, as long as we know what we're talking about.

     
  13. elroy

    elroy Sharp-heeled Mod

    Chicago, IL
    US English/Palestinian Arabic bilingual
    Wow...I must admit, I never really thought of these rules ... and now I'm not sure I always use hamzas correctly! :) I'll have to read over your rules and let them sink in.
     
  14. Jana337

    Jana337 Senior Member

    čeština
    Do you all see illogical numbers and smileys instead of some Arabic letters or is it just me?

    Jana
     
  15. elroy

    elroy Sharp-heeled Mod

    Chicago, IL
    US English/Palestinian Arabic bilingual
    I do too. It happens when you place Arabic text in parentheses. What I do is leave an extra space after the first parenthesis and before the last one.

    Is there anything that you didn't understand as a result of this glitch, though?
     
  16. Jana337

    Jana337 Senior Member

    čeština
    I haven't read it yet. I will report any problems tomorrow. :)

    Jana
     
  17. Whodunit

    Whodunit Senior Member

    กรุงเทพมหานคร
    Deutschland ~ Deutsch/Sächsisch
    Or you can write it in brackets: [العربية] ;)
     
  18. Whodunit

    Whodunit Senior Member

    กรุงเทพมหานคร
    Deutschland ~ Deutsch/Sächsisch
    I just saw you made a homework for me. :D

    Satisfied? :) I had to use ٌ for "-un", since otherwise two little lifted up waw's [ُ ُ ] would have been on top of each other.
     
  19. toubar Member

    Egypt - Arabic
    ابتداء
    The above-mentioned word is written without hamza

    Please read the rules (of hamza usage) I've mentioned above.
    Bye,
    REDA
     
  20. Whodunit

    Whodunit Senior Member

    กรุงเทพมหานคร
    Deutschland ~ Deutsch/Sächsisch
    Not really. It has a hamza at the end, but you're right that the first alef I set shouldn't be there.
     
  21. toubar Member

    Egypt - Arabic
    The Problematic Issue Always Lies With The First Alf (wether With Or Without Hamza).
    Regards,
    Reda
     
  22. Jana337

    Jana337 Senior Member

    čeština
    Reda, the software won't let you type everything in capital letters (an anti-shouting feature...) ;)

    Jana
     
  23. Lugubert Senior Member

    One hamza which I haven't noticed yet in the thread is the one without a seat. One reason may be that fonts do not allow it. In Wright's grammar (17. Rem.) there's the accusative of thing (shay’un): شيء
    There, the hamza plus its -an is between the ya' and the final alif. I think i looks better than piling the ’an on top of the alif like شَيْأً

    Yes, I know, I should have read the sticky, and I then might have been able to increase the size of my example.
     
  24. Anatoli Senior Member

    Melbourne, Australia
    Native: русский (Russian), home country: English
    Jana, please correct the obvious typo.

    Good work! Trying to analyse it. I am trying to use some for my romanisation tool (fully vowelised Arabic to Roman), not sure if I manage.
     

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