hanging chads [chad]

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In 1948 Arrow devised a logical proof saying (very roughly) that no voting system is perfect. Arrow was not talking about hanging chads, confusing ballot designs, hacked electronic machines, or any type of outright fraud.
What does the 'chads' refers to in this sentence? and why was 'hanging chads' a fraud? many thanks.
  • Gwan

    Senior Member
    New Zealand, English
    See the fourth definition in the WR dictionary. Famously, in the 2000 election between Al Gore and George W. Bush, some voting papers had these 'chads' still partially attached (hanging from the paper) and were not counted in the final result. Many people considered the election to be 'stolen' because these votes were not counted despite the voters' intention being reasonably clear. However, the sentence you have given does not equate hanging chads with fraud - Arrow was neither talking about hanging chads, nor about outright fraud. This does not necessarily mean that hanging chads are a type of fraud.

    (Of course, the example is from 1948, so the original document was not referring to the 2000 election, although the article itself presumably was written after 2000.)
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