Hindi: औ' Urdu: و ?

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marrish

Senior Member
اُردو Urdu
Hi folks,

In the below quoted poem Madhushala by Harivansh Rai Bachchan (courtesy @aevynn SaaHib) the second word in the first verse is औ'. Is it a pure coincidence that it is bears similarity to Urdu و -o- or has this word have a different etymology in Hindi? On basis of the spelling alone, the presence of (') suggests as if there's an an elision of a putative (r) from the conjunction aur اور और ?

Is it a pure coincidence that for "Madhushala" (which translates as "Maixaanah", a common word in Urdu poetry) he employs 4-liner (rubaa3ii genre) and uses words such as "piyaalah", "saaqii", "aNguur", "mast", "mai-xaanah", "nashah", "kaafir", "shaix"... just to name a few? On top of this, he uses the Persian and Urdu "harf-i-rabt" (conjunction) "va" which is pronounced as "-o-" in poetry.

मुसलमान औ' हिन्दू है दो, एक, मगर, उनका प्याला,
एक, मगर, उनका मदिरालय, एक, मगर, उनकी हाला,
दोनों रहते एक न जब तक मस्जिद मन्दिर में जाते,
बैर बढ़ाते मस्जिद मन्दिर मेल कराती मधुशाला
 
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  • desi4life

    Senior Member
    English
    There are 2 words in Hindi of different etymologies, per the Oxford Hindi dictionary: औ and -ओ-.

    औ au [aparam], conj. & adv. poet. = और.

    -ओ- -o- [P. -o-], encl. and (= व: links nouns and adjectives in expressions of Persian origin, e.g. बंदोबस्त, m. arrangement; कमोवेश, adv. more or less).
     
    • Thank you!
    Reactions: Dib

    marrish

    Senior Member
    اُردو Urdu
    Thank you. This is a good beginning, the first cited word appears to be marked "poetry"; the second one doesn't.
    It must be then that 'au'' has had a longer history in Hindi poetry, which rightly or not bring Braj and Awadhi to mind.

    कमोवेश
    Should be kam-o-besh कमोबेश۔
     

    aevynn

    Senior Member
    USA
    English, Hindustani
    Here's a rather beautiful little piece of verse, attributed to Kabir, which uses this au'. Based on those -ai and -ta verb forms, probably it's Braj...?

    कहें कबीर तहँ रैन-दिन आरती, जगत के तख्त पर जगत साँई
    कर्म और भर्म संसार सब करत है, पीव की परख कोई प्रेमी जानै
    सुरत औ' निरत धार मन में पकड़ कर, गंग और जमन के घाट आनै
    नीर निर्मल तहाँ रैन-दिन झरत है, जनम औ' मरन तब अन्त पाई

    Quick glossary for Khari Boli speakers:
    -त = -ता, ते, ती
    -ऐ = -ए [and आनै = आए]
    तहँ, तहाँ = वहाँ
    रैन = रात
    पीव = प्रेमी
    सुरत = ध्यान, याद
    निरत = लीन, मग्न

    The पाई at the end was surprising-ish (something like पाइ or पाय would better fit the paradigms I'm seeing in Braj grammars), but probably it was just done for rhyme and the meaning is in any case clear :)
     
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    desi4life

    Senior Member
    English
    Kabir’s verses aren’t purely in any one dialect, but are a variable mixture of various dialects, particularly Khariboli, Braj, and Awadhi. This mixture was typical of Nirgun Sants and is generally classified as Sant Bhasha, Sant Bani/Vani, or Sadhukkari. The verses also often exist in several versions that can lean toward one dialect or the other. So although the verse you cited is Braj overall, it also has Khariboli पाई.
     
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    aevynn

    Senior Member
    USA
    English, Hindustani
    Kabir’s verses aren’t purely in any one dialect, but are a variable mixture of various dialects, particularly Khariboli, Braj, and Awadhi. This mixture was typical of Nirgun Sants and is generally classified as Sant Bhasha, Sant Bani/Vani, or Sadhukkari. The verses also often exist in several versions that can lean toward one dialect or the other. So although the verse you cited is Braj overall, it also has Khariboli पाई.
    No disgreements about the mixture bit, but I don't think Khari Boli quite explains the syntax...? At least, the phrase doesn't fit modern rules that I'm used to. पाई would be a feminine perfective participle, but in Khari Boli I'd be expecting a subjunctive (पाए or पाएँ). And if it was meant to be a perfective participle, I'd then expect masculine agreement on the verb (with अन्त), and also an ergative postposition on the subject (जनम औ' मरन) if the phrase was to fit modern Khari Boli syntax.
     
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    desi4life

    Senior Member
    English
    ^ Upon further review, I believe the पाई is Braj rather than Khariboli. I’ve read vowels can be lengthened or shortened to fit the meter in Braj/Hindi poetry (and poetry in general). So पाई here would stand for पाइ, presumably lengthened due to the preceding साँई.
     
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    aevynn

    Senior Member
    USA
    English, Hindustani
    That's good to know! Thanks! I guess that means the entire piece of verse consistently has Braj verb forms, which is also kind of interesting.
     
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