Hindi/Gujarati: comparison of present & past tenses

panjabigator

Senior Member
Am. English
/priye gujaraatii bhaiiyo.n evm bahino.n/ (or maybe just Linguist:D)

Can you help me with the present tense? I am most confused by the Gujarati equivalent of the word /honaa/.

How do you say /hotaa hai/ as in /baarish hoti hai/ or /bade bade desho.n me.n aisii chhoTii chhoTii baate.n hotii.n rahtii.n hai.n/? :D (Dilwale Dulhaniya Le Jayenge quote).

How about with the past tense /huaa hai/? I think it is "thheyo" right? So /kyaa ho gayaa hai/ becomes /suu thhe gayo/?

main aap ke uttaron ki pratikshaa kartaa huun! (main aap ke javabon ka intizar kartaa huun).
 
  • linguist786

    Senior Member
    English, Gujarati & Urdu
    panjabigator said:
    Can you help me with the present tense? I am most confused by the Gujarati equivalent of the word /honaa/.
    I explained that here, remember?
    panjabigator said:
    How do you say /hotaa hai/ as in /baarish hoti hai/ or /bade bade desho.n me.n aisii chhoTii chhoTii baate.n hotii.n rahtii.n hai.n/? :D (Dilwale Dulhaniya Le Jayenge quote).
    Well in Gujarati "baarish hoti hai" would be "varshaad paray che" because we say "rain is falling", not like in Hindi "rain is happening".

    If you think of another example where in both Hindi and Gujarati, the "hotaa hai" works, then the Gujarati equivalent is "thai reylu che" - a type of present tense which I will explain later.

    As for the DDLJ quote :D, in Gujarati it would be:

    moTa moTa desho maaN evaa naalli naalli vaato thayaa karay.

    (This may seem strange, but in Gujarati, it is just "thayaa karay". In Hindi, the "hoti rehti hain" implies that it happens generally, or keeps happening and in Gujarati, the same idea is expressed by "thayaa karay")
    panjabigator said:
    How about with the past tense /huaa hai/? I think it is "thheyo" right? So /kyaa ho gayaa hai/ becomes /suu thhe gayo/?
    You've got the right idea. You'll understand if you compare the Hindi with Gujarati like so:

    HIN: "Kyaa huwaa hai?"
    GUJ: "Shu thayu che?"

    HIN: "Kyaa ho gayaa hai?"
    GUJ: "Shu thai gayu che?"

    Get the idea?

    Just another small thing. In the first example, it would make complete sense (infact, it is more common to hear) the "hai" missed out - i.e. just "Kyaa huwaa". This is exactly the same in Gujarati - "Shu thayu" (What's happened?)

    panjabigator said:
    main aap ke uttaron ki pratikshaa kartaa huun! (main aap ke javabon ka intizar kartaa huun)
    Intizaar karnaa puraa ho gayaa (hai)
    Intizaar karwu puru thai gayu (che). ;):D

    I think I will try and sort this whole present tense problem out. Here goes: *deep breath*:p

    I will use the verb "maarwu" (same as maarnaa in Hindi - to hit)

    "Continuous" present (eg - I am hitting)

    Oo maaru Chu (I am hitting)
    Tu maare Che (You (sing + informal) are hitting) (addressing both mal/fem)
    E maare Che (He/She is hitting)
    Amay maare Che (We are hitting)
    Tamay maaro Cho (You (polite/plural) are hitting)
    Eloko maare Che (They are hitting)

    Another type of "Continuous" present (eg - I am hitting)

    This is no different to the one above in terms of meaning

    Oo maarto Chu (I am hitting)

    Tu maarto Che (You (sing + informal) are hitting) (addressing a male)
    Tu maarti Che (You (sing + informal) are hitting)(addressing a female)

    E maarto Che (He is hitting)
    E maarto Che (She is hitting)

    Amay maartaa Che (We are hitting)
    Tamay maartaa Cho (You (polite/plural) are hitting)
    Eloko maartaa Che (They are hitting)

    "Emphatic Continuous" Present (eg - I am in the process of hitting)

    Oo maari reylo Chu (I am in the process of hitting)

    Tu maari reylo Che (You (sing + informal) are in the process of hitting) (addressing a male)
    Tu maari reyli Che (You (sing + informal) are in the process of hitting) (addressing a female)

    E maari reylo Che (He is in the process of hitting)
    E maari reyli Che (She is in the process of hitting)

    Amay maari reylaa Che (We are in the process of hitting)
    Tamay maari reylaa Cho (You (polite/plural) are hitting)
    Eloko maari reylaa Che (They are in the process of hitting)

    "General" present (eg - I hit)

    Rule = Just miss out the "che/chu/cho" (last word) from the Continuous Present (first one!)

    Oo maaru (I hit)
    Tu maare (You (sing + informal) hit) (addressing both mal/fem)
    E maare (He/She hits)
    Amay maare (We hit)
    Tamay maaro (You (polite/plural) hit)
    Eloko maare (They hit)

    Are you sure you're ready for the past tense?! :D:p
     

    panjabigator

    Senior Member
    Am. English
    Well Holy mother from another brother, that is much more then I expected, but I appreciate all the work! It is very very complex, I know. It would take me a month or so to write all this out for Panjabi, which I might do anyway for completeness. Give me a few days to process this all, and then I will be able to spit out a reply!
    Jazakallah!
     

    linguist786

    Senior Member
    English, Gujarati & Urdu
    panjabigator said:
    Does theyo have a present tense equivalent? And can you write theyo in gujarati for me?:D
    Haha.. I looked at that for about a minute wondering what on earth "theyo" was supposed to mean! Then I realised it was the Gujarati word you were talking about!

    The word you are talking about is "thayu" (not theyu) - just to be a bit picky.

    Let's start from the basics:

    The word "thayu" comes from "thawu" which means to happen. It is the equivalent of "honaa" in Hindi.

    Now what do you mean about "does it have a present tense equivalent?".. every verb can be conjugated to make it a certain tense, can't it? But anyway:

    "Thai reylu che" - (it) is happening (Hindi: ho rahaaN hai)
    "Thatu che" - (it) is happening (Hindi: hotaa hai (as in, now))
    "Thaai" - (it) happens (Hindi - hotaa hai (as in, generally))
    "Thai reylu haTu" - (it) was happening (Hindi: ho rahaaN thaa)
    "Thayu haTu" - (it) happened (Hindi: huwaa thaa)

    Does that make more sense to you?

    Oh by they way, my sister is on the computer at the moment so I'm on the laptop - on which Baraha isn't installed :( I will write all this later in Gujarati script.

    Also, I have realised I can make all this tense business much easier by comparing it with the Hindi! I will do this in the next post.
     

    panjabigator

    Senior Member
    Am. English
    Also, I have realised I can make all this tense business much easier by comparing it with the Hindi! I will do this in the next post.
    Exactly! Whenever I explain Panjabi I do so by referencing Hindi. Using English would make my head spin in circles...too many loops to jump through...I could pull a muscle! :eek:
     

    linguist786

    Senior Member
    English, Gujarati & Urdu
    OK. Here goes. I won't bother writing out the whole table for all the subjects, I'll just use the 3rd person singular form (ie - He/She...(whatever)

    I'll use the same verb again (maarwu - maarnaa in Hindi)

    PRESENT TENSE:

    "Continuous" present (ie - He/She is hitting)

    GUJ: E maare Che (or: E maarto Che)
    HIN: Wo maartaa hai

    "Emphatic Continuous" Present (ie - He/She is in the process of hitting)

    GUJ: E maari reylo Che (He)/E maari reyli Che (She)

    HIN: Wo maar rahaaN hai (He)/Wo maar raheeN hai (She)

    "General" present (ie - He/She hits)

    GUJ: E maare
    HIN: Wo maartaa hai

    Note: Notice there's no difference in Hindi for "He/She is hitting" and "He/She hits" - or is there?

    PAST TENSE:

    "Continuous" past (Imperfect) (ie - He/She was hitting)

    GUJ: E maarto hato
    HIN: Wo maartaa thaa

    "Emphatic Continuous" Present (ie - He/She was in the process of hitting)

    GUJ: E maari reylo hato (He)/E maari reyli haTi (She)

    HIN: Wo maar rahaaN thaa (He)/Wo maar raheeN thee (She)

    "General" Past (same as Preterite in Spanish) (ie - He/She hit)

    GUJ: Ene maaryu haTu
    HIN: Usne maaraa thaa

    "Perfect" Tense - (ie - He/She has hit)

    GUJ: Ene maaryu
    HIN: Usne maaraa

    Does that make more sense?
     

    linguist786

    Senior Member
    English, Gujarati & Urdu
    You're welcome - infact, it's made me think about it too! So I must thank you too.

    I must mention though, that the names I used aren't the actual names of the tenses.. I just made them up myself! (they may be right.. it's just I used the names of the tenses I use for French)

    Thinking about it now, how would you say "He used to hit".. it would be "Wo maar rahaaN thaa", right? If so, then the one I "labelled" the Emphatic Continuous should have another name - namely, the imperfect. Because the imperfect is used to say either "He was hitting" OR "He used to hit" (at-least in Romance languages..)

    Would you know what each of the tenses of the examples I gave would be called? (since you seem to know a fair bit about the grammar of Urdu/Hindi..?)
     

    panjabigator

    Senior Member
    Am. English
    "He used to hit".. it would be "Wo maar rahaaN thaa", right?
    He used to hit: /woh maartaa thaa/
    He was hitting: /woh maar rahaa thaa/

    I will consult my Hindi/Urdu grammar books to find the correct name for these tenses. I got some really good books recently, and if you want, I'll PM you the titles. They get into the nitty gritty of grammar and they provide names for all this.

    I'll get the info for you later tonight. Thanks again!
     

    linguist786

    Senior Member
    English, Gujarati & Urdu
    Ah-hah.. that's what I was thinking. Since "He used to hit" and "He was hitting" is different in Hindi, they must obviously have different names - I'd be interested in what they are called.

    I have also got a book called "Teach yourself Urdu in two months".. I kind of borrowed it off my uncle but I've still got it.. I'm sure it'll be in there. I'll look for it too.

    Thanks again.
     
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