Hindi, Sanskrit: तमाच्छन्न vs तमसाच्छन्न

Aryaved

Senior Member
USA
Marathi, Hindi
Dear forumers, I need your help in ascertaining the meaning of these words. After deep digging, I found that in Dr. Hardev Bhari's Advanced Leaner's English-Hindi Dictionary (which I have a copy of) the meaning of these words is "pervaded or covered with darkness, gloomy, enveloped in gloom". It is said in the dictionary that तमसाच्छन्न is a 'better' option than तमाच्छन्न. They are both given the same meaning and after scourging the Internet, I found a reference to these words in the examples below. So do you guys concur with this definition based on the examples below?

All help would be appreciated!


यह दर्शनीया उषा सोतों को जगाती हुई और तमाच्छन्न पथों को सुगम्य बनाती हुई अत्यंत विशाल रथ पर आरुढ हुई सूर्य के आगे-आगे चलती है। विश्वव्यापिनी उषा दिन के आरम्भ में आलोक वितरित करती है।

...प्रकृति भार से जाग उठे प्रतिभिज्ञा का प्रत्युत्तर देती, पर यांत्रिकी प्रतिक्रिया वह अब भी उपस्थिता, झटका, उछल-कूद, प्रारंभ प्रकृति के स्वप्नों की धारा का ,रुढ़ असंस्कृत मनोप्रणोदन सब दौड़े संघर्ष मार्ग पर लापरवाह सभी गति को केवल निज गति का ज्ञान उसे है, तमसाच्छन, लड़े वह निज अधिक प्रगाढ़ तमिस्त्रा से वह, है स्वतंत्र प्रत्येक, जहां है स्थायी राज्य अराजकता का।
 
  • Panditammanya

    New Member
    English - USA, Tamil
    The word is a compound of तमस् "darkness" and आच्छन्न "covered," and the meaning is "covered with darkness". (In the Sanskrit taxonomy of compounds I think it would be a तृतीया तत्पुरुष.) I think तमस has an independent existence in Hindi (it's the title of a famous novel), and while आच्छन्न seems to be rare, the closely-related word आच्छादित is quite common.

    As to the question of which sandhi form is more "correct", in Sanskrit I'm not entirely sure (I can also think of another theoretical possiblity तमआच्छन्न with hiatus). In Hindi, of course, one should follow the usage of native speakers/good writers.
     

    Aryaved

    Senior Member
    USA
    Marathi, Hindi
    ^^ Thank you for the elucidation. I think this is a good sandhi, but probably not commonly used.
     

    Dib

    Senior Member
    Bengali (India)
    Just to add a small addendum to Panditammanya's excellent elucidation, I suspect तमाच्छन्न is outright impossible in Sanskrit, while तमसाच्छन्न is certainly possible - as a तृतीया तत्पुरुष exactly as P. pointed out, but more specifically as अलुक्‌ तृतीया तत्पुरुष, i.e. where the case ending of the first element in retained. Thus, तमसा छन्न/आच्छन्न, covered by darkness = तमसाच्छन्न| I suspect the अलुक्‌ option is used here specifically in order to avoid the awkward hiatus form *तमआच्छन्न that would be otherwise required, as P. pointed out.
     
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