Hindi/Sanskrit: बहिर्ज्ञान (Bahir.gyaan / Outer Knowledge) and अन्तर्ज्ञान (Antar.gyaan / Inner Knowledge)


Senior Member
Hindi-Urdu, Punjabi, Kashmiri
I have a very narrow question. Given my interest in languages, I was asked by someone who is trying to translate a book into Hindi. Can these terms be used in the context of any general repository or system of knowledge, in terms of what is known internally within the system versus truths not known within the system? Or do they carry a specific connotation of what is known versus not known in a person's mind or consciousness? बहिर्ज्ञान would basically be 'exoknowledge,' if such a word existed in English, correct?
  • MonsieurGonzalito

    Senior Member
    Castellano de Argentina
    Aside from this forum's entry, the first Google entry that appears for बहिर्ज्ञान is in reference to Kant's conceptions of consciousness.
    Specifically, it seems, "outer sense" (in Kant's very dense terminology, "that which is achieved by acts of apperception").
    That does not seem to match the definition you give, nor I would translate it as "exo-knowledge" existing more apropos terms: "outer sense", "apperception", "extrusion"

    The other Google appearances seem to also deal with the concept of conscience (rather than knowledge), but more from a Vedic / Hindu religious point of view. I can't even start to guess what a proper English meaning would be.

    But more importantly, it would be interesting to establish if whatever you are trying to translate relates to knowledge and/or conscience in the western, phenomenological sense, or in a more religious sense. Simply because both thought traditions differ widely on what is considered "conscience" and "knowledge".

    Could you provide some more context on the subject you are trying to translate, what is the source language, et cetera?

    BTW, I neither speak Hindi nor know much about philosophy, these are all just common-sense assumptions.
    More knowledgeable members are welcome to contribute.