Hindi, Urdu: Automatic vs Automated vs Automatically

Aryaved

Senior Member
USA
Marathi, Hindi
Hello, dear forumers! How would we differentiate between the above two terms in Hindi? I am aware of the words स्वतः (Svatah) and स्वचालित (Svachaalit) and स्वचल (Svachal). What exactly are the nuances between these words and how would express such nuances in the following examples:

1. The car starts automatically as soon as you approach it.

2. That is an automated machine which operates without the control of a human.

3. Voters are registered biennially, and every five years there is an automatic redistribution of seats on a voters' basis.

If anyone wants to add the Urdu equivalents (not 'aapne aap' or 'khud-ba-khud' lol), I would be interested in seeing that as well
 
  • Alfaaz

    Senior Member
    English
    This is an interesting (* and somewhat confusing) topic!
    • * After considering potential answers to this thread and reviewing (inconsistent in certain cases) online usages of various Urdu words, I made the following thread to clear misconceptions about many of the terms: Persian, Urdu: خودکار and its derivatives. Forum members can hopefully provide clarifications in the other thread, which would assist in suggesting answers for this thread.
    In the meantime, the terms for automatic and automatically are presented below.
    Aryaved said:
    If anyone wants to add the Urdu equivalents (not 'aapne aap' or 'khud-ba-khud' lol), I would be interested in seeing that as well
    Could you shed light on why apne aap or xud ba-xud would not qualify...? These are two of the most commonly used phrases for automatically and all of Urdu terms related to automatic actually contain خود - xud!
    • automatic (and possibly for automated as well, depending on context) - خودکار - xud-kaar
    • automatically - خودبخود؛ از خود؛ خود کارانہ طور پر - xud ba-xud; az-xud; xudkaaraanah taur par
    Extra information: Arabic uses تلقائی - tilqaa'ii for automatic, spontaneous. While this word doesn't appear to be listed in Urdu dictionaries and isn't used in speech, searching online does yield a few Urdu scientific articles using it for spontaneous (in the sense of spontaneous mutations, etc.).
    Aryaved said:
    I am aware of the words स्वतः (Svatah) and स्वचालित (Svachaalit) and स्वचल (Svachal).
    Could you please explain the roots/components of the Hindi words?
    • All of them begin with sva and two of them have chal...related to chalnaa perhaps...?
     

    aevynn

    Senior Member
    USA
    English, Hindustani
    Some remarks on etymology:
    • स्व sva seems to mean "self."
    • -तः -taH is a suffix that's often used to form adverbs (much like -ly in English or -ment in French). For example, संभवतः sambhavtaH is used in Hindi for "possibly" (where संभव sambhav is an adjective meaning "possible").
    • चर chara means walking, moving, etc, and I think this is the root of the Hindi-Urdu चलना chalnaa.
    स्वतः svataH, then, is an adverb, much like अपने आप apne aap and खुुद-ब-खुद khud-ba-khud. I'm not sure there's a nuanced difference in meaning amongst these three words (though if someone can identify one, I'd love to hear it!). As far as I can tell, it seems like they're just words in three different registers of Hindi-Urdu.

    स्वचालित svachaalit is an adjective describing something that walks/moves/functions/etc on its own, ie, "automatic," and स्वचालित करना svachaalit karnaa is used sometimes for "to automate." As far as I can tell, स्वचलित svachalit, स्वचल svachal and (probably the most "correct" of them, by some Sanskritic standard) स्वचर svachar are just lesser-used variant forms of स्वचालित svachaalit — I'm not able to identify any patterns in their usages that distinguish them semantically.

    Perhaps also worth pointing out is that ऑटोमैटिक aaTomaiTik seems to be much more common on Google News than स्वचालित svachaalit.

    Example 1. Probably one possible clear option would be

    गाड़ी के पास आते ही वह अपने आप स्टार्ट हो जाती है।
    gaaRii ke paas aate hii woh apne aap sTaarT ho jaatii hai.
    But this is probably not the kind of sentence that was being sought, so... Some remarks:
    • You can swap out the अपने आप apne aap with स्वतः svataH.
    • See this other thread for a discussion of "to start" in the context of cars. You could also try चल जाती है chal jaatii hai instead of स्टार्ट हो जाती है sTaarT ho jaatii hai. I'm not enough of a Sanskrit expert to suggest a tatsam coinage for "to start" in the context of cars, engines, etc.
    • A highbrow Sanskritic equivalent of गाड़ी के पास आते ही gaaRii ke paas aate hii could be... गाड़ी के समीप पहुँचने के अनंतर gaaRii ke samiip pahuNchne ke anantar. Here, अनंतर anantar is a word meaning something like "immediately after."
    Maybe I'll try to post something about the other example sentences later...
     
    Last edited:

    aevynn

    Senior Member
    USA
    English, Hindustani
    I'd like to redact my earlier assertion that अपने आप apne aap and खुद-ब-खुद khud-ba-khud / स्वतः svataH are complete synonyms (modulo the difference in register): I realized that अपने आप apne aap has a wider range of usage than the other two words. For example, it's also used to mean "all by oneself" in sentences like the following:

    किसी ने मेरी मदद नहीं की, यह काम मैंने अपने आप किया है।
    kisii ne merii madad nahiiN kii, yeh kaam maiNne apne aap kiyaa hai.
    It seems to me that you can't substitute खुद-ब-खुद khud-ba-khud or स्वतः svataH in this sentence for अपने आप apne aap, but you could substitute खुद khud or स्वयं svayam (though for the latter, it sounds slightly better to me to say यह काम स्वयं मैंने yeh kaam svayam maiNne, as opposed to having स्वयं svayam following मैंने maiNne...).

    Anyway, back to the example sentences... I'll attempt two possible translations for each. The first will be an attempt at a highbrow, heavily Sanskritized register of Hindi. But I find these sentences slightly perverse, so, in case anyone is interested, I'll try for a second, more down-to-earth translation that feels like it captures (what seems to me to be) the essence of the sentence.

    Example 2.

    इस स्वचालित यंत्र का संचालन मानवीय नियंत्रण के बिना होता है।
    is svachaalit yant(a)r kaa sanchaalan maan(a)viiya niyantraN ke binaa hotaa hai.​

    यह मशीन अपने आप, बिना किसी के हाथ लगाए चलती है।
    yeh mashiin apne aap, binaa kisii ke haath lagaae chaltii hai.
    Example 3.

    निर्वाचक प्रति दो वर्ष पंजीकृत होते हैं, और प्रति पाँच वर्ष निर्वाचनानुसार सभा के पद स्वतः पुनर्वितरित होते हैं।
    nirvaachak prati do varsh panjiikrit hote haiN, aur prati paaNch varsh nirvaachanaanusaar sabhaa ke pad svataH punarvitarit hote haiN.

    मतदाता दो-दो साल पर रजिस्टर होते हैं, और हर पाँच साल चुनाव के ज़रिये सभा के सदस्य चुने जाते हैं।
    matdaataa do-do saal par rajisTar hote haiN, aur har paaNch saal chunaav ke zariye sabhaa ke sadasya chune jaate haiN.​
     
    Last edited:

    Aryaved

    Senior Member
    USA
    Marathi, Hindi
    I'd like to redact my earlier assertion that अपने आप apne aap and खुद-ब-खुद khud-ba-khud / स्वतः svataH are complete synonyms (modulo the difference in register): I realized that अपने आप apne aap has a wider range of usage than the other two words. For example, it's also used to mean "all by oneself" in sentences like the following:

    किसी ने मेरी मदद नहीं की, यह काम मैंने अपने आप किया है।
    kisii ne merii madad nahiiN kii, yeh kaam maiNne apne aap kiyaa hai.
    It seems to me that you can't substitute खुद-ब-खुद khud-ba-khud or स्वतः svataH in this sentence for अपने आप apne aap, but you could substitute खुद khud or स्वयं svayam (though for the latter, it slightly sounds better to me to say यह काम स्वयं मैंने yeh kaam svayam maiNne, as opposed to having स्वयं svayam following मैंने maiNne...).

    Anyway, back to the example sentences... I'll attempt two possible translations for each. The first will be an attempt at a highbrow, heavily Sanskritized register of Hindi. But I find these sentences slightly perverse, so, in case anyone is interested, I'll try for a second, more down-to-earth translation that feels like it captures (what seems to me to be) the essence of the sentence.

    Example 2.

    इस स्वचालित यंत्र का संचालन मानवीय नियंत्रण के बिना होता है।
    is svachaalit yant(a)r kaa sanchaalan maan(a)viiya niyantraN ke binaa hotaa hai.​

    यह मशीन अपने आप, बिना किसी के हाथ लगाए चलती है।
    yeh mashiin apne aap, binaa kisii ke haath lagaae chaltii hai.
    Example 3.

    निर्वाचक प्रति दो वर्ष पंजीकृत होते हैं, और प्रति पाँच वर्ष निर्वाचनानुसार सभा के पद स्वतः पुनर्वितरित होते हैं।
    nirvaachak prati do varsh panjiikrit hote haiN, aur prati paaNch varsh nirvaachanaanusaar sabhaa ke pad svataH punarvitarit hote haiN.

    मतदाता दो-दो साल पर रजिस्टर होते हैं, और हर पाँच साल चुनाव के ज़रिये सभा के सदस्य चुने जाते हैं।
    matdaataa do-do saal par rajisTar hote haiN, aur har paaNch saal chunaav ke zariye sabhaa ke sadasya chune jaate haiN.​

    Dear @aevynn, thank you so much for your explanation regarding my query! I myself enjoy the Sanskritized register of Hindi and when speaking Hindi naturally tend to use a more Sanskritized register! You helped elucidate the grammatical usage of svatah and swachalit. Bahut Bahut Dhanyavad, aevynn ji!

    Thanks to Alfaaz Sahab for shedding light on the Urdu equivalents as well!
     
    Top