Hindi/Urdu: commands

Discussion in 'Indo-Iranian Languages' started by panjabigator, Dec 30, 2009.

  1. panjabigator

    panjabigator Senior Member

    غریب الوطن
    Am. English

    I'm interested in variant forms of commands within Hindi/Urdu. In my house, aside from the combination of "āp" and "tum" commands (āp baiṭho), the "tu" command is also different. My mother would add an "io" termination to the verb stem. Therefore, "tu yeh kar" becomes "tu yeh kario." Interestingly, this does resemble Panjabi's four tiered command system as the most formal command ends in "io" as well, but these are semantically different.

    Is this unique to Delhi Hindi only or do you hear this in Pakistan as well?
    Best wishes,
  2. lcfatima Senior Member

    In a teapot
    English USA
    The only one I hear changed often by a lot of different communities is: aap/tum do becomes deio.

    And also, aap/tum X lekar ao becomes aap X leaao (le aao but all one word)

    Not sure if this is what you meant.
  3. Faylasoof Senior Member

    Plato's Republic
    English (UK) & Urdu (Luckhnow), Hindi
    To take the verb bayThnaa / baiThnaa = to sit

    We can have the following in increasing politeness as we go down:
    bayTh / baTh jaa
    tu bayTh! / bayTh jaa
    tum bayTho / bayTh jaao
    aap bayThiye / aap bayTh jaa'iye

    But also the verbally unrelated but ultrapolite forms with the same meaning:
    aap tashriif rak-hiye
    aap tashriif farmaa hoiye

    [Verb: tashriif rak-naa / farmaa hona]
  4. panjabigator

    panjabigator Senior Member

    غریب الوطن
    Am. English
    Icf, I think the "deio" may be what I'm referring to, but I hear it only with "tu" commands.
  5. Faylasoof Senior Member

    Plato's Republic
    English (UK) & Urdu (Luckhnow), Hindi
    In standard Urdu we don't say (tum) deio / bayThio etc. Sounds rustic in everyday use but interestingly enough commands like these are used in some forms of Urdu poetry! For example: kiijio! diijiyo! etc.
  6. BP. Senior Member

    I'm familiar with the -eo ending in place of -o, in fact there's also a -iijo. These have a different source than your Delliwaalii Panjaabii but nonetheless they exist. Examples: deo for do (infact de deo and le leo, probably for emphasis) and diijo/diijio for do. All these have been obsolete and dead for two generations now.
  7. Cilquiestsuens Senior Member

    I think that the aiyo I commonly here in Punjabi in Lahore is a contraction of aa jaao. As for lenaa and denaa the standard imperatives are laavo and daavo. But all these forms are for tusii

    For tuu.N / tuu there are two forms of the imperative lai et de and lai.ii.N deii.N... NOt exactly what you're talking of methinks.... So lets wait for the opinion of more knowledgeable people than me...
  8. lcfatima Senior Member

    In a teapot
    English USA
    I have only heard deo with aap and tum.

    Probably the only difference in commands, which we discussed before quite a long time ago, is the aap plus verb stem plus -e.N being very common in Pakistani Urdu, Aap baiTh jaaye.N
    Aap X kare.N
    Aap X de de.N

    used very often. I remember Illuminatus mentioned that this is used in India in Hindi, too.
  9. tamah Senior Member

    Tel aviv, Haifa
    Fluent Hebrew, Avg. Hindi & Marathi, Good English, Horrid Russian
    I think we also can use 'kijiye' or 'dijiye'.
    Aap yeh kijiye.
    Aap woh dijiye.
  10. Qureshpor Senior Member

    Punjabi, Urdu پنجابی، اردو
    In Punjabi:

    tuuN kar tusiiN karo

    tuuN kariiN tusiiN kariyo

    tusiiN karNRaa

    kariiN/kariyo/karNRaa are imperative not to be carried out immediately but at a later time/date.
  11. Qureshpor Senior Member

    Punjabi, Urdu پنجابی، اردو
    Perhaps, Moderators would be kind enough to merge this thread with the following threads covering imperatives.

    http://forum.wordreference.com/showthread.php?t=2193916&highlight=imperatives (kiijiyo)

    http://forum.wordreference.com/showthread.php?t=2583142&highlight=imperatives (Conjugation of Imperatives)

    In the Conjugation of Imperatives, I think a number of posts have disappeared due to the recent crash. I remember asking tonyspeed SaaHib if he had come across yet another "imperative" which ends in "-iyo" (sometimes shortened to o). If anyone can provide any examples from Hindi literature, it will give an indication if it is still being used in modern times or if it is more on the obsolete side. Here are a few more examples from Urdu.

    tujh se to kuchh kalaam nahiiN lekin ai nadiim
    meraa salaam kahiyo agar naamah-bar mile

    Mirza Ghalib

    [naamah-bar = messenger/letter bearer]

    ilaahii xair kiijo kuchh abhii se dil dhaRaktaa hai
    sunaa hai manzil-i-avval kii pahlii raat bhaarii hai

    Bharatendu Harishchandra “Rasa”

    yuuN paas biThaa jise tuu chaahe
    par jaagah nah diijo yaar, jii meN

    Khvaajah Miir “Dard”
    Last edited: Mar 6, 2013
  12. greatbear Banned

    India - Hindi & English
    ^ I cannot give you examples from literature, but imperatives "dijiiyo/diijo" are very much well alive: they convey a rustic flavour, and are often found in speech of people from rural areas. There is also the usual corruption (regardless of whether the verb form is in imperative or not) like "kar diiyo" (meaning "kar denaa", "kar de", etc.), "pi liiyo", "jaldi aa jaiiyo", etc. - again a loose manner of talking which conveys a certain flavour to language.

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