Hindi/Urdu - muft vs mukt vs frii ("free")

Pokeflute

Senior Member
English - American
My understanding is that "muft" means "costs nothing" and "mukt" means "unrestrained/emancipated"? Is this correct or can they be used interchangeably?

Are the following sentences correct then?
"यहाँ मुफ़्त में मिलती है" (yahaaN muft meN miltii hai) = "here you get it for free"
"यहाँ मुक्त में मिलती है" (yahaaN mukt meN milti hai) = "here you get it freely"

Follow up question - can the English word "free" be used for either? ("yahaaN frii meN milti hai"), or can it only mean "muft"?
 
  • Qureshpor

    Senior Member
    Panjabi, Urdu پنجابی، اردو
    My understanding is that "muft" means "costs nothing" and "mukt" means "unrestrained/emancipated"? Is this correct or can they be used interchangeably?

    Are the following sentences correct then?
    "यहाँ मुफ़्त में मिलती है" (yahaaN muft meN miltii hai) = "here you get it for free"
    "यहाँ मुक्त में मिलती है" (yahaaN mukt meN milti hai) = "here you get it freely"

    Follow up question - can the English word "free" be used for either? ("yahaaN frii meN milti hai"), or can it only mean "muft"?
    Hi Pokeflute, the language title of your post is "Urdu/Hindi", yet you have given your sentences in Devanagri script and Roman and have not included the Urdu script. Is there any reason for this?
     

    littlepond

    Senior Member
    Hindi
    My understanding is that "muft" means "costs nothing" and "mukt" means "unrestrained/emancipated"? Is this correct or can they be used interchangeably?

    Are the following sentences correct then?
    "यहाँ मुफ़्त में मिलती है" (yahaaN muft meN miltii hai) = "here you get it for free"
    "यहाँ मुक्त में मिलती है" (yahaaN mukt meN milti hai) = "here you get it freely"

    Follow up question - can the English word "free" be used for either? ("yahaaN frii meN milti hai"), or can it only mean "muft"?

    I am assuming that you have elided some feminine object in the sentence, because by itself the sentence "yahaaN muft meN miltii hai" cannot stand alone (unless it was an answer to a question in which the feminine object is there). Let's assume "chiinii" -- sugar -- as the object, and then proceed.

    yahaaN muft meN chiinii miltii hai - correct
    yahaaN chiinii free meN miltii hai - again, correct

    muktii means liberation, aazaadii means freedom: and these words have nothing to do with a thing being available gratis. So you cannot use "mukt" or "aazaad" in these sentences.
    What you could also use though, in Hindi, is "nishulk": yahaaN chiinii nishulk miltii hai (notice no need of postposition here).
    "nishulk" literally means "without a fee."
     
    Last edited:

    Pokeflute

    Senior Member
    English - American
    @Qureshpor, you're right - I'm primarily learning Hindi However, given how similar spoken Urdu and Hindi are, any insights from Urdu speakers are very helpful as well. Unfortunately I cannot read the Urdu script (yet) but I've included the romanization.

    @littlepond - yes you are right. FWIW The elided word was "vaccine".

    How would you say "here you can get it freely" as in "here you can get it without restriction"? Would "yahaaN aazaadi/svatantrataa se milti hai" work?"

    When you say "muktii" means "liberation" do you mean explicitly spiritual liberation, or can it be used for physical liberation as well? For example, could you say something like "amrikaa mein san 1865 ko gulaamoN ko muktii mil gayii" (or "amrikaa mein san 1865 ko gulaamoN ko mukt kiyaa gayaa thaa")?
     

    Qureshpor

    Senior Member
    Panjabi, Urdu پنجابی، اردو
    @Qureshpor, you're right - I'm primarily learning Hindi However, given how similar spoken Urdu and Hindi are, any insights from Urdu speakers are very helpful as well. Unfortunately I cannot read the Urdu script (yet) but I've included the romanization.
    Thank you and fair enough.
     

    iskander e azam

    Senior Member
    English
    When you say "muktii" means "liberation" do you mean explicitly spiritual liberation, or can it be used for physical liberation as well? For example, could you say something like "amrikaa mein san 1865 ko gulaamoN ko muktii mil gayii" (or "amrikaa mein san 1865 ko gulaamoN ko mukt kiyaa gayaa thaa")?

    The muktii baahini fought for the liberation of the Bengali East Pakistanis in 1971. So it certainly does mean physical liberation as well as spirtiual. Here it the link for the entry in Platts indispensable Urdu dictionary of 1884.
     

    Pokeflute

    Senior Member
    English - American
    Thank you @iskander e azam

    I'm seeing there's overlap between "azaadii" and "muktii" now. Is there any special connotation for "muktii", or would both be interchangeable (when talking about physical liberation)?
     

    littlepond

    Senior Member
    Hindi
    How would you say "here you can get it freely" as in "here you can get it without restriction"? Would "yahaaN aazaadi/svatantrataa se milti hai" work?"

    Your sentence would be understandable, but is not idiomatic. You'd say something on the lines of "yahaaN Tiikaa swachchhand roop se miltaa hai" or "yahaaN Tiikaa milnaa khulaa huaa hai."
    If you are talking of free as in no money, then you could say "yahaaN Tiikaa nishulk mil rahaa hai" or "... muft meN mil rahaa hai."

    When you say "muktii" means "liberation" do you mean explicitly spiritual liberation, or can it be used for physical liberation as well? For example, could you say something like "amrikaa mein san 1865 ko gulaamoN ko muktii mil gayii" (or "amrikaa mein san 1865 ko gulaamoN ko mukt kiyaa gayaa thaa")?

    The difference is the same as in English's freedom and liberation: the two are often interchangeable, but not always. For spiritual liberation, "muktii" is the word (just like in English, "liberation" is the usual word: spiritual freedom would rather mean freedom to practice one's beliefs, or something like that, which is not what spiritual liberation means). For physical liberation, one can mostly (but not always) use both, though "muktii" is a stronger word than "aazaadii" in some contexts.

    "muktii mil jaanaa" (the part in red in your sentence) means usually someone has died, is free from the cycle of rebirths! I hope that's what not you meant for the slaves in America. If you want to use "muktii" in that sentence, then it'd be better to use "muktii milii."

    Note that for independence struggles or political movements, "aazaadii" is the preferred word in Hindi, not "muktii": we call India's freedom struggle as "aazaadii ka sangharsh," not "muktii kaa sangharsh." Even in the present-day politics, Kanhaiya Kumar's famous slogan is "aazaadii" (freedom), not "muktii" (liberation). Freedom means being free to do or think things as one wants; liberation means deliverance, freedom from things: maybe in English that nuance is not that strong as in Hindi?

    Bangladesh's mukti baahini, the example given by @iskander e azam jii, is in Bengali language: so that example doesn't bear much on Hindi. I am not knowledgeable about Bengali: maybe "aazaadii" is not a word of currency in Bengali? @Dib jii?

    I'm seeing there's overlap between "azaadii" and "muktii" now. Is there any special connotation for "muktii", or would both be interchangeable (when talking about physical liberation)?

    I think what was said earlier has shed more light for you on the matter? In any case, always remember that even in a context where both seem interchangeable, "muktii" in Hindi can be a much stronger word.
     
    Last edited:

    Alfaaz

    Senior Member
    English
    Pokeflute said:
    ... "here you get it for free" ...
    ... The elided word was "vaccine". ...
    ... "here you can get it without restriction" ...
    A few options for Urdu translations:

    یہاں (ویکسین/جدرین) (مفت/بلا معاوضہ) (ملتی/دستیاب/لگائی جاتی/دی جاتی) ہے - yahaaN (vaccine/judriin) (muft/bilaa-mu3aawazah) (miltii/dastyaab/lagaa'ii jaatii/dii jaatii) hai

    • here vaccine (free/without cost) (found/available/administered, given) is
    یہاں ویکسین بغیر کسی قسم کی پابندی کے ملتی ہے - yahaaN vaccine baGhair kisii qism kii paabandii ke miltii hai
    • without any kind of restriction
    یہاں ویکسین بلا قیود و شرائط ملتی ہے - yahaaN vaccine bilaa quyuud-o-sharaa'it miltii hai
    • without restrictions and conditions
    Pokeflute said:
    ... "mukt" means ...
    Entries for mukt(a), muktii, etc. in Urdu Lughat and Feroz-ul-Lughaat:
    مُکت: مغفرت ، نجات ، آزادی ، رہائی (خاص کر اواگون یا گناہ سے) ۔
    mukt: maGhfirat, najaat, aazaadii, rahaa'ii (xaaS kar aavaagavan yaa gunaah se)
    مُکت: آزاد ، نجات یافتہ ، گناہوں سے نجات پایا ہوا ، وجود جسمانی کی قید سے رہائی پایا ہوا ۔
    mukt: aazaad, najaat yaaftah, gunaahoN se najaat paayaa hu'aa, wujuud-e-jismaanii kii qaid se rahaa'ii paayaa hu'aa
    مُکت (مکتی) - [ہ - ا - مذ] نجات، بخشش، مغفرت، چھٹکارا، رہائی (۲) چھوٹا ہوا، رہا، آزاد (۳) گناہ کی سزا سے بچا ہوا، نجات پایا ہوا
    mukt (muktii) - [hindii - ism - muzakkar] najaat, baxshish, maGhfirat, chhuTkaaraa, rahaa'ii (2) chhuuTaa hu'aa, rahaa, aazaad (3) gunaah kii sazaa se bachaa hu'aa, najaat paayaa hu'aa
    مکتی فوچ - [ا - مث] عیسائیوں کی ایک جماعت جس کا کام لوگوں میں عیسائیت کی تبلیغ کرنا ہے [انگ] Salvation Army
    muktii fauj - [ism - mu2annas] 3iisaa2iiyoN kii ek jamaa3at jis kaa kaam logoN meN 3iisaa2iyyat kii tabliiGh karnaa hai [angrezii] Salvation Army
     
    Top