Can I get some more input from other Hindi, Urdu and Punjabi speakers here? Very interesting conversation that I'd like to reignite.
jhootha झूठा - one who tells lies, or a liar
jootha जूठा - a food or an item which has been partially eaten or touched by mouth by someone else.
Both words are very different. At times people misspell "jootha" with "jhootha" (or any word with "J" as starting with "Jh") and it is wrong to do so.
Your explanation is in line with Punjabi where there are two separate words for a liar and "contaminated" utensil or food. However, Platts gives the definion as below, which is how the word is used in Urdu (minus the aspiration of Th).[/unquote]
Obviously Punjabi and Hindi are sister-languages and have much in common. I am not surprised at all if the concept is same in Punjabi and Hindi.
I have no knowledge of Urdu language and hence can't tell. As you are saying it is different case in Urdu where the two words are same, I will be better watchful now
Btw, "contaminated" is no proper translation for "jootha". "Contaminated" is used for different purpose, its connotations are more indicating towards "physical" aspect, while "jootha" is more towards notional...
I believe jooTa means "used," but I feel the way I hear it being used connotes some kind of meaning of ritual purity as well. Can someone kindly explain this?
eg. Yeh doodh mat piyo, jooTa hai.
A stri could of course be joothi, and so can many other things and concepts.
Is food from an unacceptable source or prepared by an unacceptable person also "jooTha?"
What is the jooThan a reference to for the Dalit book?
A loss of aspiration has occurred elsewhere as well, e.g. paudhaa, nibhaanaa etc. It appears (without extensive brainstorming for examples) to not occur for the first consonant.
Linguistic question. If juuThaN is the noun for left overs, what is the semantic and structural meaning of the adjective?Joothan (जूठण) is the noun form of the adjective jootha, and thus means the same: leftovers of someone. The book has the title because leftover food of someone (someone's jootha) is an anathema for many in Hindu society, just as Dalits were an anathema/untouchables for many in India.
So, just to be clear, then:
The word झूठा as in false, counterfeit, deceiving, etc. is not spelt in Urdu جھوٹھا as one would expect, but جھوٹا and Platts is wrong?