Hindi/Urdu: Usage of rarer compound verbs? (aanaa, marnaa, maarnaa, chalnaa, nikalnaa, pahunchnaa, chodnaa)

bargolus

New Member
Danish and English - British
While it is easy to find numerous explanations for how to use the more common compound verbs (leena, deena, jaana, Dalnaa, paDnaa, uThnaa, baiThnaa and rakhnaa), it is much harder to find examples and explanations for the usage of rarer compound verbs in Hindi/Urdu.

E.g. "Modern Hindi Grammar" by Omkar Koul in http://www.koausa.org/iils/pdf/ModernHindiGrammar.pdf refers to the use of these verbs in verb-verb compounds:

Aanaa / आना / آنا - "to come"
Marnaa / मरना / مرنا - "to die"
Maarnaa / मारना / مارنا - "to hit"
Chalnaa / चलना / چلنا - "to walk"
Nikalnaa / निकलना / نکلنا - "to get out"
Pahunchnaa / पहुंचना / پہنچنا - "to arrive"
Chodnaa / छोड़ना / چھوڑنا - "to give up"

I've scoured the Internet to try to find example sentences where they are actually used as compound verbs, but it is really hard to find examples that have been translated into English. The few examples, I've been able to find are:

For aanaa / आना / آنا :

Vo bhag ayaa / वह भाग आया / وہ کل بھاگ آیا - he came running

For marnaa / मरना / مرنا :

Vo laDh mare / वह लड़ मरे / وہ لڑ مارے - they died fighting / they fought to the death

For maarnaa / मारना / مارنا :

Usne use thappaD de maare / उसने उसे थप्पड़ दे मारे / اس نے اسے تھپڑ دے مارے - he slapped him (hard)

For chalnaa / चलना / چلنا :

Uski tabiyat kharaab ho chalaa thi / उसकी तबीयत खराब हो चला थी / اسکی طبیعت خراب ہو چلا تھی - his health deteriorated

For nikalnaa / निकलना / نکلنا :

Chaand aa niklaa / चाँद आ निकला / چاند آ نکلا - the moon came out

For pahunchnaa / पहुंचना / پہنچنا :

Vo aa pahunche hain / वह आ पहुंचे हैं / وہ آ پہنچے ہیں - they have arrived

However, in general, it's quite hard to find examples and good explanations about what the above compound verbs are doing to the sentence?

I also haven't found any examples using chodnaa / छोड़ना / چھوڑنا .

Any help with example sentences would be really appreciated!!

(NB. I'm not looking for sentences using these verbs as simple verbs, just how you would use them as compound verbs).
 
  • MonsieurGonzalito

    Senior Member
    Spanish
    it's quite hard to find examples and good explanations about what the above compound verbs are doing to the sentence
    If you mean syntactically, it would be perfectly valid (and perhaps the only reasonable thing) just to mark the whole compound verb as the nucleus of the sentence's predicate, without attempting any further analysis inside it. I believe this is a general truth for verbal phrases (Hindustani or otherwise), and you should not be confused by the fact that the English translation might not a compound verb, but a verbal-verb phrase susceptible to be analyzed inside.


    I also haven't found any examples using chodnaa / छोड़ना / چھوڑنا .
    Neither did I. I am not a native or very proficient speaker, so I just looked on the Internet for conjugated forms of choDnaa to check what kind of words appeared around it, but could not find anyone remotely verbal that might suggest a verbal phrase. I speak Spanish and the verb "dejar" can mean "to leave" or in compound phrases "dejar de + verb" = to stop doing a certain action, but I don't know if the same works in Hindustani.

    Perhaps some native or more knowledgeable speaker can answer that.
     

    Jashn

    Senior Member
    Canadian English
    I feel this is above my pay grade, so I'll just chime in with the following example, although it does combine with denaa, so perhaps it is not quite what you're looking for...

    mujhe chhoD do
    means 'leave me' or 'let me go'

    It's a very common expression, heard often in Hindi movies. It's the only example of chhoDnaa being used in a compound verb that comes to mind, really, though of course, my knowledge is limited.
     
    Last edited:

    aevynn

    Senior Member
    USA
    English, Hindi
    aanaa

    verb stem + aanaa could indicate movement towards speaker, like in the bhaag aanaa example you've given. I think usually the implication is something like... the subject did the action indicated by the stem, and moved towards the speaker. These could be simultaneous, as in your bhaag aayaa = "came running" example, or perhaps one after the other, as in wo saare kaam kar aaii, which might be translated as something like "she (came after she) finished up all of the work."

    Koul says that that aanaa as an "explicator" indicates a "change of state from within." Perhaps what he's going for here is what one observes in the compound ho aanaa. If you search for हो आया on Google Books, you'll see a lot of examples:

    कान्त के बदन में जैसे रोमांच हो आया।​
    kaant ke badan meN jaise romaanch ho aayaa.​
    लतिका को हठात् कुछ स्मरण हो आया।​
    latikaa ko haThaat kuchh smaraN ho aayaa.​

    I think the implication being added here by the aanaa is something like: the romaanch (the thrill, the excitement) "came bubbling out," the memory "came bubbling up," etc. Whatever it was was lodged somewhere deep inside, but then came loose and showed up on the outside.

    marnaa

    Koul says this indicates "completion, lack of control." Your example with laR marnaa is again a good one, though it might necessarily mean "fight to the death." Depending on the context, it could just be haphazard thoughtless fighting. Another example is the following sentence from Ismat Chughtai's famous lihaaf.
    ان رشتہ داروں کو دیکھ کر اور بھی ان کا خون جلتا تھا کہ سب کے سب مزے سے مال اڑانے، عمدہ گھی نگلنے، جاڑوں کا ساز و سامان بنوانے آن مرتے اور وہ باوجود نئی روئی کے لحاف کے بڑی سردی میں اکڑا کرتیں۔
    un rishte-daaroN ko dekh kar aur bhii un kaa khuun jaltaa thaa ki sab-ke-sab maze se maal uRaane, umdaa ghii nigalne, jaaRe ka saaz-o-samaan banvaane aan marte aur wo bavajuud naii ruii ke lihaaf ke paRii sardii meN akRaa kartiiN.​

    Here aan = aa (incidentally, I never hear this aan colloquially, I only see it in writing). I think the implication added by the explicator marnaa is that these relatives "just show up" (rather than "come") to have their winterstuff made, and that they do so unthinkingly (without any regard for begam jaan's condition, etc).

    I speak Spanish and the verb "dejar" can mean "to leave" or in compound phrases "dejar de + verb" = to stop doing a certain action, but I don't know if the same works in Hindustani.
    Yep, infinitive + chhoRnaa (or rather, more commonly, infinitive + choR denaa) means to stop doing something. For example,
    उसने शराब पीनी छोड़ दी।​
    اس نے شراب پینی چھوڑ دی۔​
    usne sharaab piinii choR dii​
    He gave up drinking alcohol.​

    That said, perhaps this is not what @bargolus was asking about, since I would parse this syntactically as chhoRnaa functioning as a simple verb and the infinitive acting as its object.

    But that's all I've got time for this morning! :) Perhaps someone else will be able to say something about the other "explicators," and if not I'll post more some other time.
     

    Alfaaz

    Senior Member
    English
    bargolus said:
    I also haven't found any examples using chodnaa / छोड़ना / چھوڑنا .

    Any help with example sentences would be really appreciated!!
    Here are a few potentially relevant literary examples:

    ہم نے کچھ پنکھ جو دالان میں رکھ چھوڑے ہیں
    پنچھی آ جائیں گے اس دھیان میں رکھ چھوڑے ہیں

    افضال نوید

    ham ne kuchh pankh jo daalaan meN rakh chhoRe haiN

    panchhii aa jaa'eN ge is dhyaan meN rakh chhoRe haiN

    Afzaal Naveed

    سگھڑ ہے اس لئے اولاد کے لئے رکھ چھوڑے یہ کنگن اور یہ ناک کی کیل، یہ سب کچھ بی بی ہی کا ہے۔ احمد ندیم قاسمی

    sughaR hai is liye aulaad ke liye rakh chhoRe yeh kangan aur yeh naak kii kiil, yeh sab kuchh biibii hii kaa hai. - Ahmad Nadeem Qasimi

    یا کوئی اور بات ہے جسے آپ نے راز بنا کے رکھ چھوڑا ہے؟ ۔ سعادت حسن منٹو

    yaa ko'ii aur baat hai jise aap ne raaz banaa ke rakh chhoRaa hai? - Sa3aadat Hasan Manto

    General observation: Such usage of chhoRnaa seems to be far more common in Punjabi (chhaDDnaa), whereas Urdu and Hindi usually employ Daalnaa (or something else) in its place. Corrections of any mistakes/misconceptions is always appreciated!

    • ka'ii kitaabaaN likh chhaDDiyaaN - ka'ii kitaabeN likh DaaliiN
    • ka'ii naam badal chhaDDe - ka'ii naam badal Daale
    • etc.
     

    littlepond

    Senior Member
    Hindi
    ^ "rakh chhoRnaa" is very common in Hindi. And there are similar constructions, all commonly used. (For example: "likh chhoRnaa".)
     

    marrish

    Senior Member
    اُردو Urdu
    Somewhere I read that scholars of Hindi wondered if verb stem + chhoRnaa were not a construction limited to the grammar books or something to that extent. Not sure where I found it but I could not believe it had fallen out of use. Thanks littlepond SaaHib.
     
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