Hindi, Urdu: Vishvaas vs. Yaqiin vs Bharosaa

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Pokeflute

Member
English - American
What are the differences between these 3 words? My understanding is that "yaqiin" is "belief/certainty", and "bharosa" is "trust/faith". But I don't understand how "vishvaas" fits into these definitions.

Is there a difference between "mujhe vishvaas nahin ho rahaa hai" and "mujhe yaqiin nahin ho rahaa hai"?

How about "main uspar vishvaas kartaa hoon" and "main uspar bharosaa kartaa hoon"?
 
  • littlepond

    Senior Member
    Hindi
    Hindi:

    "vishvaas" is more "belief": "mujhe bhagvaan meN (pakkaa) vishvaas hai, voh sab kuchh Thiik karegaa." It can also be translated as faith.

    "yakiin" is again "belief," but you are wanting to express that you are relying upon this belief. "mujhe pooraa yakiin hai ki voh meraa bharosaa nahiiN toRegaa." In sentences such as "yakiin se" or "yakiinan," it can be translated as "with certainty, surely, assuredly" (with the reservation that nothing is certain in this world).

    "bharosaa" as you said is "trust, reliance, confidence (in the sense of 'I've confidence in him')": it sometimes can be translated as "faith," depending on context. (You could also say "mujhe bhagvaan meN pooraa bharosaa hai," but now you're saying I've complete trust in God: of course, some may translate this as "faith" or "belief.")

    The more usual translations of "faith" are "aasthaa" and "vishvaas". There is also "aasaktii," which sometimes can mean "faith," but has a deeper meaning otherwise.

    For me, there is no difference between "mujhe vishvaas nahiiN ho rahaa hai" and "mujhe yakiin nahiiN ho rahaa hai," except that the latter is a slightly stronger statement. For some, there is no difference except their personal preference or habit about which word they use out of the two.
     

    Pokeflute

    Member
    English - American
    Thank you!

    Is there a difference between "mujhe bhagvaan meN (pakkaa) vishvaas hai" and "mujhe bhagvaan par (pakkaa) vishvaas hai"?
     

    MonsieurGonzalito

    Senior Member
    Castellano de Argentina
    A poetic example, in the song "Dil Khush Hai Aaj", from the movie "Ghazal"

    jii chaahtaa hai maan hii leN ab xudaa ko ham
    jis kaa yaqiin na thaa, vah karaamaat ho gaii


    I believe the poet is saying that now he is prepared to accept the existence of the supernatural, of God, etc., all of which he wasn't certain about, before.
     

    Qureshpor

    Senior Member
    Panjabi, Urdu پنجابی، اردو
    I think most of what that needs to be said has already been said.

    From an Urdu perspective, "yaqiin" implies a firm belief and this does not have to be the belief/faith one has from a religious perspective. For that the word would be "iimaan" although "yaqiin" can still be used. As far as I know, yaqiin and vishvaas are equivalent. yaqiin is opposite of "shak" (doubt).

    "yaqiin-an" means "certainly".

    Here is a couplet from a well known Pakistani poet.

    yaqiin kis liye us par se uTh gayaa hai Munir
    tumhaare sar pih yih shak kaa 3azaab kyoN aayaa

    Munir Niyaazi

    For what reason have I lost faith in him/her O Munir
    Why has the torment of doubt made way to your head

    bharosaa, written in Urdu as "bharosah" as well as "bharosaa" is more a "reliance" and "trust" than belief. But it can mean "faith" when it is used in the sense of "trust".

    Aniis dam kaa bharosah nahiiN, Thahar jaa'o
    charaaGh le ke kahaaN saamne havaa ke chale

    Mir Anis

    Anis, stop! When will the last breath be? One can not trust.
    Where are you heading off to, lamp in hand, facing a gust?
     

    amiramir

    Senior Member
    English-USA
    Thanks, OP, for the great question.

    What about when 'believe' is used in less weighty contexts? i.e. 2 kids fighting:
    - I didn't take your toy.
    - I don't believe you!

    Mujhe tum par vishvaas/bharosaa nahiN hain? Are these too heavy?

    And also re: yaqiin, in every day life, when I want to use 'sure,' sometimes yaqiin sounds a bit heavy I think? (Well, I used it once in a sentence 15 years ago, and my cousin laughed. Traumatized, I have never used it since!).

    - Are you sure this is the right way to the shop?
    - Would you like some tea? No thanks. Are you sure?
    - I'm not sure whether this is suitable. (though here I am quite comfortable with Mujhe maaloom nahiiN (agar?))

    Thanks
     

    littlepond

    Senior Member
    Hindi
    What about when 'believe' is used in less weighty contexts? i.e. 2 kids fighting:
    - I didn't take your toy.
    - I don't believe you!

    Mujhe tum par vishvaas/bharosaa nahiN hain? Are these too heavy?
    Yes, they are a bit heavy, though some children may anyway use them. But many would say something like "maiN nahiiN maantaa."

    And also re: yaqiin, in every day life, when I want to use 'sure,' sometimes yaqiin sounds a bit heavy I think?
    "yakiin" anyway doesn't mean "sure": it rather means a firm belief. If you meant "sure" in the sense of "certainly," then the word is "yakiinan" rather.

    - Are you sure this is the right way to the shop? - kyaa pakkaa yahii raastaa hai dukaan jaane ka?
    - Would you like some tea? No thanks. Are you sure? - kyaa aap chaai leNge? nahiiN, shukriyaa. pakkaa?
    - I'm not sure whether this is suitable. (though here I am quite comfortable with Mujhe maaloom nahiiN (agar?)) - mujhe pakka nahiiN hai ki yeh yogya hai.
     

    Qureshpor

    Senior Member
    Panjabi, Urdu پنجابی، اردو
    [
    Thanks, OP, for the great question.

    What about when 'believe' is used in less weighty contexts? i.e. 2 kids fighting:
    - I didn't take your toy.
    - I don't believe you!

    Mujhe tum par vishvaas/bharosaa nahiN hain? Are these too heavy?

    And also re: yaqiin, in every day life, when I want to use 'sure,' sometimes yaqiin sounds a bit heavy I think? (Well, I used it once in a sentence 15 years ago, and my cousin laughed. Traumatized, I have never used it since!).

    - Are you sure this is the right way to the shop?
    - Would you like some tea? No thanks. Are you sure?
    - I'm not sure whether this is suitable. (though here I am quite comfortable with Mujhe maaloom nahiiN (agar?))

    Thanks
    - I didn't take your toy.
    - I don't believe you! maiN nahiiN maantaa/maantii

    - Are you sure this is the right way to the shop? kyaa tumheN Thiik tarH patah hai kih dukaan kaa yahii raastah hai?
    - Would you like some tea? No thanks. Are you sure? saHiiH?
     

    amiramir

    Senior Member
    English-USA
    Thank you both.

    On Hindi TV one often hears: maiN sure nahiiN huuN. Can you use pakka here instead (maiN pakka nahiiN huuN)? If I am a girl, would it become pakki? If we are plural, pakke?

    Or maybe they are using sure in this way, as pakka doesn't fit the English construction that underpins the Hindi sentence?
     

    Qureshpor

    Senior Member
    Panjabi, Urdu پنجابی، اردو
    "kyaa pakkaa yahii raastaa hai dukaan jaane ka?"

    I would take the following meaning from this.

    Is this the metalled way that leads to the shop ? (as opposed to a dirt track).

    "I'm not sure whether this is suitable. (though here I am quite comfortable with Mujhe maaloom nahiiN (agar?))"

    maiN Thiik se nahiiN kah saktaa kih yih munaasib hai.

    maiN yaqiin se nahiiN kah saktaa kih yih munaasib hai.

    maiN yaqiin se nahiiN kah saktaa aayaa yih munaasib hai yaa nahiiN (higher Urdu register)
     

    Alfaaz

    Senior Member
    English
    Entries in Urdu Lughat:
    یَقِین

    وہ اعتبار یا اعتماد جو کسی کے شک ڈالنے سے زائل نہ ہو ، بھروسا ، اطمینان ؛ اعتقاد ، ایمان ؛ پکا عقیدہ ۔

    بلاشبہ ، بلا شک ، ضرور ، ٹھیک ، تحقیق ، درست ، سچ ۔

    ۔ ظن ، گمان .

    (تصوف) خدا کی ذات پر ایسا کامل یقین گویا سالک خود خدا کو دیکھ اور محسوس کررہا ہو ۔

    مرگ ، موت ۔

    وشواس

    ۱۔ اعتبار ، بھروسہ ، اعتماد ، یقین ، پرتیت ، ساکھ ، پتیارا

    ۲۔ عقیدہ ، ایمان ، اعتقاد ، ایقان ۔

    ۳۔ صداقت ؛ دوستی
    (ہندی اردو لغت)
    بَھروسا

    ۱. (i) آسرا ، سہارا ، تکیہ ؛ امید ، توقع .

    (ii) توکل .

    ۲. اعتماد ، اعتبار ، یقین .

    A few additional notes:
    • As can be seen from the dictionary entries quoted above, the three words discussed in the opening post can have similarities as well as slight differences in meaning.
      • The list of potential synonyms isn't limited to the three words and multiple other words can be used, such as i3tibaar or i3timaad, depending on context.
    • While vishvaas is listed in the dictionary and examples can be found in Urdu literature, it is seldom used in speech.
      • pratiit would be even rarer in Urdu.
    • یقین - yaqiin - noun (and adjective, adverb)
      • یقینی - yaqiinii - adjective (and noun)
        • یقیننًا - yaqiin-an - adverb
      • یقینیات - yaqiiniiyaat - noun - certainties, truths, axioms, etc.
    • From the Arabic root یقن, there is تیقّن - tayaqqun as well as the following:
      • متیقَّن - mutayaqqan - that which is certain, etc.
      • متیقِّن - mutayaqqin - sure, certain, convinced, etc.
    Examples from Urdu poetry:
    raat kaisii bhii ho xauf ke chor kii ghaat kaisii bhii ho
    apnii ummiid kaa apne vishvaas kaa rakhnaa raushan diyaa

    Amjad Islam Amjad
    رات کیسی بھی ہو خوف کے چور کی گھات کیسی بھی ہو
    اپنی امید کا اپنے وشواس کا رکھنا روشن دیا

    امجد اسلام امجد
    woh be-yaqiin bharosa nah kar sakaa warnah
    the mere saath ka'ii log i3tibaar ke bhii

    Saleem Siddiqui
    وہ بے یقین بھروسہ نہ کر سکا ورنہ
    تھے میرے ساتھ کئی لوگ اعتبار کے بھی

    سلیم صدیقی
    mujhe tumhaare tayaqqun se xauf aataa hai
    keh is yaqiin meN shaamil gumaaN nahiiN meraa

    Abrar Ahmad
    مجھے تمہارے تیقن سے خوف آتا ہے
    کہ اس یقین میں شامل گماں نہیں میرا

    ابرار احمد
     

    littlepond

    Senior Member
    Hindi
    On Hindi TV one often hears: maiN sure nahiiN huuN. Can you use pakka here instead (maiN pakka nahiiN huuN)? If I am a girl, would it become pakki? If we are plural, pakke?

    Or maybe they are using sure in this way, as pakka doesn't fit the English construction that underpins the Hindi sentence?
    One could say "maiN pakkaa hooN," but not that common (it might feel one is baked!); rather, one would say something on the lines of "mujhe pakkaa nahiiN hai ki ..." or "mujhe pakkii jaankaarii hai ki ...", etc.

    "kyaa pakkaa yahii raastaa hai dukaan jaane ka?"

    I would take the following meaning from this.

    Is this the metalled way that leads to the shop ? (as opposed to a dirt track).
    That would be a wrong translation. If you were to mean a metalled path, the sentence would be "kya yahii pakkaa raastaa hai dukaan jaane kaa?" "pakkaa" if before "yahii" cannot be an adjective: it has to be an adverb.

    Also, the sentence I wrote wasn't a made-up sentence: it is a common phrase used by all Hindi and Urdu speakers in India. They don't mean a metalled road.
     

    Qureshpor

    Senior Member
    Panjabi, Urdu پنجابی، اردو
    ۔۔۔۔۔That would be a wrong translation. If you were to mean a metalled path, the sentence would be "kya yahii pakkaa raastaa hai dukaan jaane kaa?" "pakkaa" if before "yahii" cannot be an adjective: it has to be an adverb.

    Also, the sentence I wrote wasn't a made-up sentence: it is a common phrase used by all Hindi and Urdu speakers in India. They don't mean a metalled road.
    I am afraid I don't agree with your grammatical explanation.

    kyaa achchaa vahii aadmii hai jise tum achchaa samajhte ho?

    Here "achchaa" is before "vahii" but it is not an adverb.
     

    littlepond

    Senior Member
    Hindi
    I am afraid I don't agree with your grammatical explanation.

    kyaa achchaa vahii aadmii hai jise tum achchaa samajhte ho?

    Here "achchaa" is before "vahii" but it is not an adverb.
    I didn't offer a grammatical explanation really (though I went into adjectives and adverbs): I offered a commonsensical explanation (within the context, "pakkaa" in that position would normally mean "surely," not "metalled").

    Your example is not a good analogy, since in this sentence "achchhaa" cannot work as an adverb, whereas "pakkaa" can (and mostly does). (If you were to put "achchhaa" as the first word of your sentence, then "achchhaa" could work both as adverb or adjective, and context -- or a comma -- will determine what is being said.)
     

    Qureshpor

    Senior Member
    Panjabi, Urdu پنجابی، اردو
    I didn't offer a grammatical explanation: I offered a commonsensical explanation (within the context, "pakkaa" in that position would normally mean "surely," not "metalled").

    Your example is not a good analogy, since in this sentence "achchhaa" cannot work as an adverb, whereas "pakkaa" can (and mostly does).
    We shall agree to disagree.
     

    HindiMurkh

    Member
    Hindi & Gujarati
    What are the differences between these 3 words? My understanding is that "yaqiin" is "belief/certainty", and "bharosa" is "trust/faith". But I don't understand how "vishvaas" fits into these definitions.

    Is there a difference between "mujhe vishvaas nahin ho rahaa hai" and "mujhe yaqiin nahin ho rahaa hai"?

    How about "main uspar vishvaas kartaa hoon" and "main uspar bharosaa kartaa hoon"?
    Here are the most common expressions I can think of for each of the 3 words.

    Hindi: Mujhe yaqiin nahii ho rahaa ki... [statement]
    English: I cannot believe that [statement]

    In this case it's more of a statement that one would make after being shocked by some event.


    Hindi: Mujhe uss par puraa vishvaas hai.
    English: I have complete/total faith/trust in him.
    In this case vishvaas is being used as trust or faith.

    For example you may have trust or faith in your friends to make the right choices.


    Hindi: Ham iska bharosaa kar sakte hain?
    English: Can we trust/rely on him/her/this

    I've always felt like bharosaa is more of a trustworthy reliance rather than belief or faith.


    In conclusion: In most cases for me, I find yaqiin and vishvaas to be similar in meaning. Whereas bharosaa is more for reliance or trustworthy-ness (if that's even a word).
     

    marrish

    Senior Member
    اُردو Urdu
    Just adding, I tend to say yaqiin nahiiN aa rahaa rather than yaqiin nahiiN ho rahaa in Urdu.
     

    aevynn

    Senior Member
    USA
    English, Hindustani
    kyaa pakkaa yahii raastaa hai dukaan jaane ka?
    "pakkaa" if before "yahii" cannot be an adjective: it has to be an adverb.
    I've definitely heard sentences of this sort as well. I might venture to propose, though, that pakkaa here might still be an adjective rather than an adverb, if we assume that the sentence merely elides a hai ki, as in:

    kyaa pakkaa hai ki yahii raastaa hai dukaan jaane kaa?
    Is it certain that this is the way to go to the store?

    This makes pakkaa an adjective and the noun phrase it modifies is the entire ki clause that follows. @Qureshpor jii, would you be happier with this analysis? :)
     
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    marrish

    Senior Member
    اُردو Urdu
    Are you sure this is the right way to the shop?

    From یقینِ پختہ، پختہ یقین yaqiiin-e-puxtah, puxtah yaqiin -> pakkaa yaqiin.

    Perhaps the 'implied' words in that sentence can be these,

    1. [(kyaa) tumheN] pakkaa [yaqiin hae kih] yahii raastah dukaan jaane kaa hai?]; = Are you convinced that...;
    2. [(kyaa) tumheN]
    pakkaa [patah hae kih] yahii raastah dukaan jaane kaa hai?]= Do you know for sure if... .
     

    Qureshpor

    Senior Member
    Panjabi, Urdu پنجابی، اردو
    I've definitely heard sentences of this sort as well. I might venture to propose, though, that pakkaa here might still be an adjective rather than an adverb, if we assume that the sentence merely elides a hai ki, as in:

    kyaa pakkaa hai ki yahii raastaa hai dukaan jaane kaa?
    Is it certain that this is the way to go to the store?

    This makes pakkaa an adjective and the noun phrase it modifies is the entire ki clause that follows. @Qureshpor jii, would you be happier with this analysis? :)
    No, I would n't be, aevynn SaaHib.

    Firstly, the way littlepond has phrased the sentence, I would still insist that it is ambiguous. One can extrapolate from that sentence that the enquirer's concern is about a "pakkaa raastah" as opposed to a "kachchaa raastah".

    Secondly, I am not sure if the pakkaa adjective qualifies the whole phrase. I would tend to go along with the analysis offered by marrish SaaHib which makes perfect sense.

    Finally, with due respect to you, you do tend to come up with your answer/s when others have had a go. :)
     

    littlepond

    Senior Member
    Hindi
    I agree with both @aevynn jii and @marrish jii (my reading of "pakkaa" as an "adverb" is probably not correct). I agree with the former too because "pakkaa" is not necessarily an elided "pakkaa yakiin, vishvaas" as evidenced by a sentence like "yeh to pakkaa hai ki ..."(of course, there also exists "yeh pakkii baat hai ki ...," but that is a slightly different matter). One could say that in "yeh to pakkaa hai ki ...," it is an elided "pakkaa maaloom hai" but in that case the question whether "pakkaa" is then an adverb or not resurfaces.

    However, I continue to disagree with @Qureshpor jii: the example I had offered has not much ambiguity for me, especially if it's not poetry and/or when the context is clear.
     

    Qureshpor

    Senior Member
    Panjabi, Urdu پنجابی، اردو
    I agree with both @aevynn jii and @marrish jii (my reading of "pakkaa" as an "adverb" is probably not correct). I agree with the former too because "pakkaa" is not necessarily an elided "pakkaa yakiin, vishvaas" as evidenced by a sentence like "yeh to pakkaa hai ki ..."(of course, there also exists "yeh pakkii baat hai ki ...," but that is a slightly different matter). One could say that in "yeh to pakkaa hai ki ...," it is an elided "pakkaa maaloom hai" but in that case the question whether "pakkaa" is then an adverb or not resurfaces.

    However, I continue to disagree with @Qureshpor jii: the example I had offered has not much ambiguity for me, especially if it's not poetry and/or when the context is clear.
    "yeh to pakkaa hai ki" is not a complete sentence. Could you please complete it so that we can work out what the word "pakkaa" is referring to.
     
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    aevynn

    Senior Member
    USA
    English, Hindustani
    Upon further reflection, I think my suggestion in my last post was not so good m(_ _)m. It may be more parsimonious to say that pakkaa is in fact an adverb in the sentence in question, as @littlepond jii suggested originally.

    Firstly, there are sentences like wo pakkaa haaregaa ("He'll lose for sure") where you can't simply insert words to explain the adverbial behavior as adjective behavior. Maybe you could insert words in addition to reordering if you really wanted to get pakkaa to be functioning as an adjective again, as in pakkaa hai ki wo haaregaa or mujhe pakkaa yaqiin hai ki wo haaregaa or whatever, but it seems simpler to assume that pakkaa just functions as an adverb, rather than assuming there are elided words that only appear after reordering.

    Secondly, I guess this explaining away with an elided hai ki was a little questionable to begin with, since hai ki is not something that can generally be elided. For example, the first sentence below is acceptable, while the second, which skips over the hai ki, sounds unnatural to me.
    acchaa hai ki wo thoRe waqt ke liye unke saath rahegaa​
    It's good that he'll stay with them for a while.​
    *acchaa wo thoRe waqt ke liye unke saath rahegaa.​
    If I explain the sentence kyaa pakkaa yahii raastaa hai dukaan jaane kaa? with an elided hai ki, like I tried to do in my last post, I would also need to have some explanation for why eliding a hai ki is okay in that sentence but not in the above sentence. So again, maybe it's more parsimonious to just analyze pakkaa as an adverb in @littlepond jii's sentence.

    From یقینِ پختہ، پختہ یقین yaqiiin-e-puxtah, puxtah yaqiin -> pakkaa yaqiin.
    Thanks for pointing out this similarity between puxta and pakkaa, @marrish jii! I learned as a result that that puxta and pakkaa are etymologically related, certainly to each other, but also to English words like cook, biscuit, and pumpkin :)
     

    littlepond

    Senior Member
    Hindi
    "yeh to pakkaa hai ki" is not a complete sentence. Could you please complete it so that we can work out what the word "pakkaa" is referring to.
    @aevynn jii has completed an example sentence in the very next post ("yeh to pakkaa hai ki voh haaregaa"). I didn't know that imagining the rest of an example sentence would be so difficult.
     

    Qureshpor

    Senior Member
    Panjabi, Urdu پنجابی، اردو
    @aevynn jii has completed an example sentence in the very next post ("yeh to pakkaa hai ki voh haaregaa"). I didn't know that imagining the rest of an example sentence would be so difficult.
    littlepond SaaHib, you will have noticed that my response was before aevynn SaaHib's. So, this tone in your reply is not really necessary. Besides, I wanted to know what *you* had in mind.

    "yeh to pakkaa hai ki voh haaregaa".

    In "yeh to pakkaa hai", what is yeh referring to?
     

    marrish

    Senior Member
    اُردو Urdu
    I'm not littlepond SaaHib, but I'm trying to figure out an answer to that - us kaa haarnaa pakkaa hai -> kyaa pakkaa hai? yeh pakkaa hai ki voh haaregaa [??!!]
     

    marrish

    Senior Member
    اُردو Urdu
    While vishvaas is listed in the dictionary and examples can be found in Urdu literature, it is seldom used in speech.

    وشواس

    ۱۔ اعتبار ، بھروسہ ، اعتماد ، یقین ، پرتیت ، ساکھ ، پتیارا

    ۲۔ عقیدہ ، ایمان ، اعتقاد ، ایقان ۔

    ۳۔ صداقت ؛ دوستی
    (ہندی اردو لغت)
    But Alfaaz SaaHib, wrong conclusions could be reached on basis of that statement, because it's a Hindi-to-Urdu dictionary!

    I thank you for producing the poetry quotations as I don't recall coming across any like the first one before.

    As to the words that it's seldom used in speech, it might be very frequently on the tongues of some Urduphones hailing from India nowadays, still I concur with you on the whole as I have never witnessed any speaker from Pakistan employ vishwaas, indeed.

    Now that I'm thinking, this difference must be simply because in Urdu the word vaswaas occupies the space, considering that 'vishvaas" would have been mispronounced by a largely illiterate majority, especially in olden times [edit: see for reference Urdu: shiin qaaf (se) durust honaa], so I am not surprised the North Indian litterateurs and educationists who gave shape to the language we know weren't in the mood of going with it and popularising such a word – if it ever were to cross their minds for want of a rhyming word, when you consider the opposite meanings this pair bears!
     
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    littlepond

    Senior Member
    Hindi
    In a sentence like "pakkaa bolo ab, agar do-so [200] ka bhaao hii hai to maiN khariid letaa hooN" - the "pakkaa" modifies "bolnaa," and I fail to see how it is not an adverb. One could claim that it is the elision of "pakkii baat bolo," but then many adverbs can be explained like this: the English "go slow" can be explained as "go in a slow fashion"!

    littlepond SaaHib, you will have noticed that my response was before aevynn SaaHib's. So, this tone in your reply is not really necessary. Besides, I wanted to know what *you* had in mind.

    "yeh to pakkaa hai ki voh haaregaa".

    In "yeh to pakkaa hai", what is yeh referring to?
    My apologies, @Qureshpor jii! In my mind was a generic "yeh to pakkaa hai ki aisaa hogaa."

    Now what is "yeh" referring to? "ki aisaa hogaa." One could of course recast the sentence as "ki aisaa hogaa, pakkaa hai."
     
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    littlepond

    Senior Member
    Hindi
    kyaa pakkaa hai ki yahii raastaa hai dukaan jaane kaa?
    Is it certain that this is the way to go to the store?
    I wonder what the word "sachchii" (true-adj., truly-adv.) is in the forum members' mind, including yours, @aevynn jii? Adjective only, or both adjective and adverb? That might shed some light on "pakkaa" too.

    One could use this sentence (with or without "hai ki") using "sach" (n., adj.) or "sachchii" (adj., adv.?) in the following ways:

    kyaa sach meN yahii raastaa hai dukaan jaane kaa?
    kyaa sach hai ki yahii raastaa hai dukaan jaane kaa?
    kyaa sachchii yahii raastaa hai dukaan jaane kaa?

    The following construction is, however, not possible:

    *kyaa sachchii hai ki yahii raastaa hai dukaan jaane kaa?

    One could again claim that "sachchii" is only an adjective (e.g., "sachchii baat" - there can also exist "sach baat"), but the existence of phrases like "sachchii bataao" do not make that seem a likely thing (there exists also "sach bataao," but that is "tell the truth," whereas "sachchii(-sachchii) bataao" means "tell truthfully").
     
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    Alfaaz

    Senior Member
    English
    marrish said:
    But Alfaaz SaaHib, wrong conclusions could be made on basis of that statement, because it's a Hindi-to-Urdu dictionary!
    Feroz-ul-Lughaat (Urdu-Urdu dictionary) also lists vishvaas, vishvaas-ghaat, etc.
    marrish said:
    I thank you for producing the poetry quotations as I don't recall coming across any like these before.

    As to the words that it's seldom used in speech, it might be very frequently on the tongues of some Indian Urduphones nowadays, ...
    Yes, it should have been mentioned that some/certain/or perhaps even many (depending on various factors) Indian Urduphones might employ the word. However, from (limited) observation of Indian Urdu channels and interacting with Indian Urdu speakers, it seems that they too generally don't use the word very often (if at all). Of course, everyone's experiences can be different!
    marrish said:
    ... still I concur with you on the whole as I have never witnessed any speaker from Pakistan employ vishwaas, indeed.
    This was the reason for including the first quoted couplet, as it is by Amjad Islam Amjad - a Pakistani poet, playwright, and lyricist (as you would already know, one of his most famous dramas on PTV was Waaris). In addition, there are at least a few television hosts/news analysts who you can hear at times using vishvaas/vishvaas-ghaat in specific contexts. If we consider colloquial language/common speakers who are not associated with literature or media, however, vishvaas certainly appears naa-paid in comparison to bharosaa, yaqiin, etc.
     
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