Hindi, Urdu: When to use ko for a direct object?


Senior Member
English - American
Is there any difference between the following sentences?

She opened the door

usne darvaaze ko khol diyaa
usne ye/vo darvaazaa khol diyaa
usne darvaazaa khol diyaa (I know this can mean "she opened a door (which has not been mentioned before)", but can it also mean "she opened the door (that has been mentioned before)?)


I was taught that "ko" is used to mark definiteness (i.e. refer to very specific things). "is kitaab paRho", "maiNne usko dekhaa" etc.
But I've also seen it not used a lot when there's a specific object being mentioned (e.g. "maiNne tumhaari kitaab udhaar li" -> I borrowed your book).

When do you use "ko" and when do you not? Or is the use of "ko" optional?
  • littlepond

    Senior Member
    "ko" is optional here: the most commonly used sentence here would be "us ne darvaazaa kholaa" ("khol diyaa" is for extra drama, otherwise bland "opened" is "kholaa").

    If you want to add some more drama (emphasis), you can use "us ne darvaaze ko kholaa" - that would feel as if there was some suspense hanging onto this.

    "us ne darvaaza kholaa" can mean both "the door" or "a door" here.