Hindi: work stoppage

Discussion in 'Indo-Iranian Languages' started by Wolverine9, Jan 8, 2013.

  1. Wolverine9 Senior Member

    American English
    The Hindi word for this is generally written as bandh in English contexts; however, is it written as 'bandh' in Devanagari or as 'band'? I've seen both forms in different dictionaries. Which is the more common form, though?
  2. hindiurdu Senior Member

    Hindi-Urdu, Punjabi, Kashmiri
    I did a Google statistic test on it -

    भारत बंद - 3,740,000
    भारत बंध​ - 107,000 (many leading links were for Nepali language material)

    No contest and it isn's surprising. 'bandh' would actually be incorrect and makes no sense, 'band' means 'closure'. So, why is this spelled 'bandh' so often in English? I suspect that this has to do with alternative romanization mechanisms. Usually in North India and Pakistan: ड,द = d; ढ,ध = dh. In South India, ड = d; द,ढ,ध = dh. So, दाल​ = dhaal in some renderings. The 'h' gets used in this scheme as a retroflex to dental softner as well as for aspiration, e.g. तो/تو becomes 'tho'. It may be because Tamil doesn't have aspirated consonants.
  3. marrish

    marrish Senior Member

    اُردو Urdu
    I think you are right as far as the English spelling is concerned, please see the thread 'masti, nashaa' for my post where a loan-word also includes 'h'. For the rest, I don't think Devanagari is used in Pakistan!
  4. hindiurdu Senior Member

    Hindi-Urdu, Punjabi, Kashmiri
    Sorry, I meant those sounds, i.e. دھ, ڈھ = dh and د, ڈ = d. In the South Indian rendering, د ,دھ, ڈھ = dh and ڈ = d. So, the Arabic-loanword دین/दीन​ (religion) often (but not always) becomes 'dheen' in South India and the Maldives as opposed to 'deen' in North India and Pakistan. Similarly, Waheed > Waheedh, Damini > Dhamini, tariqa > thariqa. I think the Northern system is slowly displacing the Southern one.
    Last edited: Jan 8, 2013
  5. marrish

    marrish Senior Member

    اُردو Urdu
    The other reason for spelling ''bandh'' in English could be a need to differentiate it from the real English word ''band''.
  6. Wolverine9 Senior Member

    American English
    The only problem with googling in this case is that a lot of the results for 'band' will be variations of the verbs band honaa or band karnaa, or they might be used in a different sense other than work stoppage.

    Regardless, the dearth of relevant results for 'bandh' points to 'band' being the proper form.
  7. Wolverine9 Senior Member

    American English
    Yes, that's what I suspected too. It's somewhat annoying, though, to see h's inserted when there should be none.
  8. hindiurdu Senior Member

    Hindi-Urdu, Punjabi, Kashmiri
    I agree. I get irritated when I see 'dhal' in menus also. It resembles 'dhul' (of 'wash') and makes a picture of dirty water. Definitely not something that you'd want to eat.

    To clarify, I ran the search in quotes, i.e. exact pattern matching. No doubt there will be some error but the figures are so radically different as to leave no doubt.
  9. marrish

    marrish Senior Member

    اُردو Urdu
    An English speaker without the knowledge of Hindi wouldn't pronounce this ''h's'' after all. Another thought about this word, it is possible that some people consider this word as a derivation from बंधना baNdhnaa or any other similar Sanskrit/Prakrit root word.
  10. tonyspeed Senior Member

    English & Creole - Jamaica
    I have seen this in other contexts where English is used to represent something that is not English. The 'h' is an empty 'h' used to separate band from bandh. If you say a 'band' has happened, you leave English speakers scratching their heads.
  11. lcfatima Senior Member

    In a teapot
    English USA
    What is the difference between band and haRtaal?
  12. hindiurdu Senior Member

    Hindi-Urdu, Punjabi, Kashmiri
    I think a 'band' means a shutdown, as of a city or state or country. A 'haRtaal' is, strictly speaking, a strike. I could be wrong but I think 'band' has become more important recently. Earlier, the word 'haRtaal' was used for both things and, sometimes, even now is. I guess you could argue a 'band' is a special type of 'haRtaal'. You can use 'haRtaal' to refer to a 'band' but not the other way around. There are some informal terms as well. 'Chakkaa jaam' is one that comes to mind, though it seems to have become popular in the sixties and seventies and then died away.
  13. UrduMedium

    UrduMedium Senior Member

    United States
    Urdu (Karachi)
    ^ Haven't heard this use of band in Pakistani context. And at least in Karachi there used to be no shortage of such events, back in the days :)

    It was always a haRtaal for us. And total shutdown was pahyaa-jaam haRtaal.
  14. hindiurdu Senior Member

    Hindi-Urdu, Punjabi, Kashmiri
    I think band must have started as a slogan from some political party that caught on. It was haRtaal until about 15 years ago and then all of a sudden it became fashionable to say such-and-such place was "closed" (band).

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