I had to look this one up because I'd never heard it before. It means "punish or scold someone severely." I believe that it is only used in informal British English (and not in North American English)--just to let you know!
“…把她教训一顿” sounds ok.
“…把她教训一下” is still unnatural, as 一下 conveys the meaning of "one touch/a bit", which is too light for the mood.
The most natural way here is using a direct structure, i.e. 等她回家后我得教训她 instead of using 把 format, which is indirect.
More colloquially, we would say 等她回家后，看我怎么教训她 / 给她点颜色看看 etc.