If he has lived in London, he is/will be in England.

Honki

Senior Member
Japanese
Hi.

Please look at sentences (1) and (2) below:

(1) If he has lived in London since last May, he is in England.
(2) If he has lived in London since last May, he will be in England.


Question:
Which sentence is more natural English, sentence (1) or (2)?

Would you please give me your comments about sentences (1) and (2)?

Thank you in advance.
 
  • PaulQ

    Senior Member
    UK
    English - England
    1. he is in England. -> The speaker cannot know for certain, but he is as certain as he can be. It is almost a fact.
    2. he will be in England. -> This is less certain, but not a lot less certain, than 1. The speaker is making a prediction. Predictions are never certain, but the speaker feels that this must be the case.
     

    DonnyB

    Sixties Mod
    English UK Southern Standard English
    Do you have any context for this, please?

    I'm struggling a bit to envisage a scenario in which anyone would actually say either of these.

    [cross-posted]
     

    Honki

    Senior Member
    Japanese
    1. he is in England. -> The speaker cannot know for certain, but he is as certain as he can be. It is almost a fact.
    2. he will be in England. -> This is less certain, but not a lot less certain, than 1. The speaker is making a prediction. Predictions are never certain, but the speaker feels that this must be the case.
    Thank you for your comment, PaulQ.
    Once again, thank you.
     

    Honki

    Senior Member
    Japanese
    Do you have any context for this, please?

    I'm struggling a bit to envisage a scenario in which anyone would actually say either of these.

    [cross-posted]
    All of the people in London are in England.
    He has lived in England.
    Therefore, if he has lived in London since last May, he is/will be in England.
     

    JulianStuart

    Senior Member
    English (UK then US)
    All of the people in London are in England.
    He has lived in England.
    Therefore, if he has lived in London since last May, he is/will be in England.
    Unless he is visiting e.g. Japan now?
    In other words, just because you "live" somewhere it does not mean you are/will be always "there". It's the logic not the language that is unclear :)
    If he "has lived in London since last May" we conclude, from the use of the present perfect tense, that he is still living there.
     

    DonnyB

    Sixties Mod
    English UK Southern Standard English
    All of the people in London are in England.
    He has lived in England.
    Therefore, if he has lived in London since last May, he is/will be in England.
    Well, yes: I take the point that there's a sort of process of logical deduction there, but what I was getting at was why anyone would want or need to say that - or in what real-life situation somebody would actually have occasion to use that sentence during the course of a conversation.

    That's what I meant by "context". ;)

    [cross-posted]
     

    Honki

    Senior Member
    Japanese
    Unless he is visiting e.g. Japan now?
    In other words, just because you "live" somewhere it does not mean you are/will be always "there". It's the logic not the language that is unclear :)
    If he "has lived in London since last May" we conclude, from the use of the present perfect tense, that he is still living there.
    Thank you for your comment, JulianStuart.
     

    Honki

    Senior Member
    Japanese
    Well, yes: I take the point that there's a sort of process of logical deduction there, but what I was getting at was why anyone would want or need to say that - or in what real-life situation somebody would actually have occasion to use that sentence during the course of a conversation.

    That's what I meant by "context". ;)

    [cross-posted]
    Thank you for yor comment, DonnyB.
    As you say, logical deduction is the matter.

    I would like to ask you a question.
    Do you judge sentence (3) below as correct English?

    (3) If he has been in London since last May, he is in England.

    Sentence (3) is an example of logical deduction.
     
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