[in heaven]/[by heaven]/[by God]?

Hale Chen

Senior Member
Hi, there. Could you do me a favor?

Man’s destiny is predestined [in heaven]/[by heaven]/[by God].

Do the three parts in brackets mean the same? Thanks in advance.
  • Uncle Jack

    Senior Member
    British English
    "Predestined" does not really suppose an agent, so "predestined by" does not sound right to me. However, you could probably say "predestined by God". I cannot see that "heaven" (singular) is ever capable of acting as an agent, but an astrologer may say that something is "predestined in the stars".


    Senior Member
    English (northeastern US)
    If you think of God as residing in heaven, then you could say "Man's destiny is predestined in heaven", although 'destiny' is something that's predestined by definition, so 'destiny is predestined' Is somewhat repetitive.
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