in the face of

Blue Apple

Senior Member
Persian (Iran)
Does "in the face of" in the first context below imply "despite the existence and dominance of" and does it in the second context mean "within"?

Context #1:
Indeed much has been made of the ‘political’ failure of the neo-avant-garde to bring art and life together in a way that would radically change the world – a somewhat unfair charge, particularly in the latter part of the twentieth century, with artists working in the face of the forces and influences of consumerism and complacency brought by more middle-of-the-road politics.

Context #2:
For Steinbach, it is not so much the object itself that is the problem but our relation to it. In substituting mass-produced objects for art objects, Steinbach and Koons call attention to the artwork as commodity, suggesting that the relationship that people have with consumer products is analogous to their relationship with art. Here, we are not so far away from the thoughts of British cultural theorist Raymond Williams, who saw advertising as a magic system which had developed in the face of ‘a cultural pattern in which objects are not enough but must be validated, if only in fantasy, by association with social and personal meanings which in a different cultural pattern might be more directly available’.

(source of both contexts: Art and Advertising by Joan Gibbons)
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