including acting as "which includes" or "like"

stephenlearner

Senior Member
Chinese
Hi,

I copied this sentence from a newspaper.

The approach has persisted despite the steady flare-ups of violence including this past weekend, when protesters threw bricks and gasoline bombs.

I thought that "including" means "which includes/included", but here in this sentence this interpretation doesn't fit, because violence does not include "this past weekend". Then, I began to think "including" acts as a preposition, like "like". However, a new problem arises; is there a similarity between "this past weekend" and "violence" ? Can we say "this past weekend" is a type of "violence"?

We can, however, use "like" in the following sentence, because "photography" or "painting" is a type of hobby.
There are numerous hobbies you might enjoy, like photography or painting.

Please help to clarify the mysteries.
Thank you.
 
  • lingobingo

    Senior Member
    English - England
    The approach has persisted despite the steady flare-ups of violence – including [those that took place] this past weekend, when protesters threw bricks and gasoline bombs.
     

    Edinburgher

    Senior Member
    German/English bilingual
    The flare-ups of violence have been "steady", which means they have been occurring regularly, including (during) this weekend.
    So "this weekend" is a prepositional phrase (acting as an adverb of time) with its preposition elided.
     

    PaulQ

    Banned
    UK
    English - England
    The approach has persisted [for an extended period] despite the steady flare-ups of violence including [= and the extended period includes] this past weekend, when protesters threw bricks and gasoline bombs.
     
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