Influence of one language on another

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ronanpoirier

Senior Member
Brazil - Portuguese
I opened a similar thread on the Portuguese forum. But now it’s about all the languages.
I’d like to know if your language was influenced and if it influenced another languages. But not about nouns and adjectives. I’m interested about other words classes and grammar.
As an example I used on my other thread, Arab left a preposition to Portuguese and Spanish (probably to Galician and Catalan too): Até (Pt) / Hasta (Sp), which means until or as far as.

So I have already said that Arab influenced Iberian languages with a preposition.

Any other examples?

See ya! _o/
 
  • betulina

    Senior Member
    català - Catalunya
    As an example I used on my other thread, Arab left a preposition to Portuguese and Spanish (probably to Galician and Catalan too): Até (Pt) / Hasta (Sp), which means until or as far as.

    So I have already said that Arab influenced Iberian languages with a preposition.
    Hi, Ronan,

    I can't think of any at the moment, but I'm afraid the example you gave does not apply for Catalan, as this preposition is fins, which comes from Latin, like the Italian and French ones, I think.
     

    Chazzwozzer

    Senior Member
    Turkish
    Since the day Republic of Turkey founded, Turkish has been, not only in the sense of nouns and adjectives, under the influence of French. For the last ten years I'd say, it is currently being influenced by English.

    Before the Republic, in the Ottoman times, it was being influenced by Arabic and Persian and a new language developed: Ottoman Turkish.

    Presently, of course, Ottoman Turkish is considered as extinct variant of Turkish, well that's because people never used it was just used as administrative and literary language. In spite of that, Turkish borrowed many Arabic and Persian words. Some of these words still coexist with Turkish equivalents. Grammar, well, probably as a result of being an Altaic language, Turkish never picked up grammatical structures from these two languages.

    BUT, nowadays, unfortunately, speaking Turkish with Turkish words but somehow on English grammar is rapidly becoming popular especially among young people. French and English prefixes are even used with Turkish words to form new words! It's a strange development in the language because Turkish is all about suffixes!

    You may want to check these threads as well:
    http://forum.wordreference.com/showthread.php?t=222694
    http://forum.wordreference.com/showthread.php?t=210909
    http://forum.wordreference.com/showthread.php?t=223332

    That's all I can think of now, I'll come up with more later. :)

    Ekin
     
    Hi,

    I remember reading somewhere that two of the four verb tenses in Finnish, perfect ("perfekti") and pluperfect ("pluskvamperfekti"), were imported from Germanic languages. This can be noted, for example, in the fact that those tenses are formed exactly like in e.g. English, Swedish and German. The auxiliary verb is "olla" (to be) as in some verbs in German.

    There's a reference to this in Wikipedia article about Finnish grammar.
     
    Greek has happily absorbed the Turkish derivational suffix -ci [-ʤi] that has become extremely productive in colloquial MoGr as the masculine «-τζης» [-ʣ͡is] and forms nouns of habit or occupation. It's so much productive, that within the last 20-30 years or so, it began formulating feminine forms as well, eg:
    «Ταξί» [taˈk͡si] (neut.) --> taxi > «ταξιτζής» [tak͡siˈʣ͡is] --> male taxi-driver, «ταξιτζού» [tak͡siˈʣ͡u] --> female taxi-driver
    «Γλυκό» [ɣliˈkɔ] (neut.) --> sweetmeat, candy, sweet dessert > «γλυκατζής» [ɣlikaˈʣ͡is] --> male person having a sweet tooth, «γλυκατζού» [ɣlikaˈʣ͡u] --> female person having a sweet tooth.

    More generally speaking, the lingustic phenomenon of Balkansprachbund, is well attested, but experts haven't till now reached a consensus on the language responsible for the spreading of the lingustic changes, although, truth to be told, most of the changes attested, have occured in Greek long before any Slavic influence in the area.
     

    momai

    Senior Member
    Arabic - Syria
    Greek has happily absorbed the Turkish derivational suffix -ci [-ʤi] that has become extremely productive in colloquial MoGr as the masculine «-τζης» [-ʣ͡is] and forms nouns of habit or occupation. It's so much productive, that within the last 20-30 years or so, it began formulating feminine forms as well, eg:
    «Ταξί» [taˈk͡si] (neut.) --> taxi > «ταξιτζής» [tak͡siˈʣ͡is] --> male taxi-driver, «ταξιτζού» [tak͡siˈʣ͡u] --> female taxi-driver
    «Γλυκό» [ɣliˈkɔ] (neut.) --> sweetmeat, candy, sweet dessert > «γλυκατζής» [ɣlikaˈʣ͡is] --> male person having a sweet tooth, «γλυκατζού» [ɣlikaˈʣ͡u] --> female person having a sweet tooth.

    More generally speaking, the lingustic phenomenon of Balkansprachbund, is well attested, but experts haven't till now reached a consensus on the language responsible for the spreading of the lingustic changes, although, truth to be told, most of the changes attested, have occured in Greek long before any Slavic influence in the area.
    Syrian Arabic as other Arabic dialects has plenty of words with this suffix (ji) which are inherited from the Ottoman era. Those words are mainly profession names like qahwaji (coffee maker), komaji (auto mechanic, koma is supposedly gummi), me3marji (construction worker), etc.
    Some exceptions which are not profession names are mishkalji (problem seeker) and maSlaHji (opportunist)
    The suffix itself is not productive as it used to be and most words we still use are inherited from previous generations.
     

    Awwal12

    Senior Member
    Russian
    In Russian that suffix is implicitly contained only in several words, mostly historical. It seems that only two Russian words from this list are in active use:
    1. книгочей (knigochéy) "book lover; bookworm". The Russian verb читать (chitát') "to read" may have stabilized it and ifluenced its meaning somewhat, but -chey cannot be really derived from -chit-, so the word must have been loaned together with the very word for "book" (*kъniga < *küinig) in the early Common Slavic era.
    2. палач (palách) "executioner" (apparently from the unattested *palačı ~"a knifeman") has been loaned much later, in the 17th century or slightly earlier.

    However, while -či/-čı never was productive in Russian, it might have influenced the use of some native suffixal complexes, e.g. -щик(-schik, < -sk- + -ik-) in words like ямщик (yamschík) "a cabman", "a driver" (originally - "a worker of the Yam"), apparently under the influence of "yamčı".
     

    Penyafort

    Senior Member
    Catalan (Catalonia), Spanish (Spain)
    As an example I used on my other thread, Arab left a preposition to Portuguese and Spanish (probably to Galician and Catalan too): Até (Pt) / Hasta (Sp), which means until or as far as.

    So I have already said that Arab influenced Iberian languages with a preposition.
    As mentioned above, that Catalan preposition is Latin in origin, not Arabic.

    Generally speaking, Arabic influenced Catalan much less (~2% of modern words) than it did in the West Iberian (Ibero-Romance) languages. That is, many of the words from Arabic origin in Spanish and Portuguese are rather Latin (or Frankish) in Catalan.

    However, Arabic certainly left quite a few words in Catalan too, many coincidental with those of Spanish and Portuguese, but not always.

    Here are some examples in which the Catalan word is Arabic in origin but not in Spanish or Portuguese:

    tile - Cat. rajola - Sp. baldosa - Pt. ladrilho​
    mattress - Cat. matalàs - Sp. colchón - Pt. colchão​
    tray - Cat. safata - Sp. bandeja - Pt. bandeja​
    lavoir - Cat. safareig - Sp. lavadero - Pt. lavadouro​
    attic, loft - Cat. golfa - Sp. desván, buhardilla - Pt. sótão​
    Agave americana - Cat. atzavara - Sp. agave, pita - Pt. agave, piteira​
    There are also examples in which both Catalan and Spanish (or Portuguese) borrowed the word from Arabic, but from a different Arabic word. For example, carpet (Cat. catifa - Sp. alfombra), oil cruet (Cat. setrill - Sp. aceitera), noria waterwheel (Cat. sínia - Sp. noria - Pt. nora), etc.
     

    Mr.Dent

    Senior Member
    English - all over the USA
    Many Persian words found their way into Hindi, for example नज़दीक (nazdeek) which means 'near', an adverb.
     
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