Iranian: apostrophe in Avestan transcription

Arabus

Senior Member
Arabic-Aleppo
Hello,

In this page there is an Avestan word transcribed this way X’iiaona [Hyaona].

In this page the same word is written in two ways, h'yaonya and Hvyaona.

I am just confused. There are four different transcriptions of the same word.

The manuals on the Avestan script say that there are two separate symbols for /x/ and /h/. According to this page there is in the Avestan script a ligature hw that can stand for /xʷ/. I wounder if the transcriptions X’ and h' stand for this ligature?

What does the symbols X’ and h' mean? And how should the cited word be read?
 
  • fdb

    Senior Member
    French (France)
    In the currently favoured system of transliteration (Karl Hoffmann) the Avestan name is written xiiaona- with an acute accent on the x (I cannot find this character in Unicode). In the older system (Christian Bartholomae) it is written ḣyaona- with a dot over the h. In Avestan script (also not yet on Unicode) both are written the same; it is just a question of transliteration. The letter in question is no. 19 in the table in Hoffmann's article in the EIr.
     
    Last edited:

    Arabus

    Senior Member
    Arabic-Aleppo
    Great answer. Thank you.

    Do you have any idea why the word was written Hvyaona in this page and this page?

    As far as I understand, the letter transcribed x' (no.19) is a "front velar," which means it sounds /ç/ (like in German ich) or perhaps /xʲ/. I can't see why this sound should be transcribed hv.
     

    fdb

    Senior Member
    French (France)
    Your links are to Darmesteter's translation (1882), good for the time, but now outdated. Letter no. 19 was some sort of palatalised consonant, we don't really know how it was pronounced. The transcription as "hv" is not used by anyone today.
     
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