is there a pattern for the prefixes for perfective?

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Cześć,

Is there a pattern for what prefix to use for a verb in the perfective form? Sometimes the perfective verbs have prefixes of z, za, prze, etc. as shown below:

jadać (ja jadam)- jeść - zjeść
grywać ( ja grywam)- grać - zagrać
czytywać(ja czytuję)-czytać - przeczytać

Thanks,
Drei
 
  • Jana337

    Senior Member
    čeština
    I hate to disappoint you but I am afraid that there aren't any. Perhaps some vague tendencies. And many imperfective verbs can take on several prefixes.

    Jana
     

    Marga H

    Senior Member
    Poland,Polish
    Cześć!
    Jana is right(as usual:) ) there is no rule but one: you usually have lots of possibilities to add prefixes (and then the meaning is different)Prefixes in Polish make verbs pefective but also work like prepositons after verbs in English (look at,look up,look out,look for) creating word family.
    I will try to give you an example to explain better.
    You have asked earlier about" podpisywać"
    the "main" verb is pisać (write) imperfective form,napisać is perfective,so you add prefix na .But you also have podpisać(sign),zapisać(note),wypisać(write up),dopisać(add writing),przepisać(copy)(all cognate with different meaning)They all are perfective and have their imperfective partners:
    podpisać-podpisywać
    zapisać-zapisywać
    wypisać - wypisywać
    dopisać-dopisywać
    przepisać-przepisywac
    pisywać means repeated action of pisać(like present simple tense in English)There are few verbs like that.
    Hope it helps a bit.(Feel free to ask more in any doubt:) )
     
    Cześć,

    Did I fill in the table correctly? Also, what is the first column called?

    What should this title be?/Perfective/ Imperfective
    ? /podpisać/ podpisywać
    ? /zapisać/ zapisywać
    ? /wypisać/ wypisywać
    ? /dopisać/ dopisywać
    ? /przepisać/ przepisywac
    pisywać/ napisać/ pisać


    Dziękuję,
    Drei
     

    Marga H

    Senior Member
    Poland,Polish
    Cześć,

    Did I fill in the table correctly? Also, what is the first column called?

    What should this title be?/Perfective/ Imperfective
    ? /podpisać/ podpisywać
    ? /zapisać/ zapisywać
    ? /wypisać/ wypisywać
    ? /dopisać/ dopisywać
    ? /przepisać/ przepisywac
    pisywać/ napisać/ pisać


    Dziękuję,
    Drei
    Yes , correctly:thumbsup:
    ? all don't exist.
    Only pisywać is the form of repeated action ( czasownik wielokrotny )
    of main verb pisać.
    Derivate verbs with different prefixes don't have this form.
     

    vince

    Senior Member
    English
    Is there a default prefix, that although wrong most of the time, can be understood as an attempt to form the perfective?

    Kind of like adding "ed" to the end of an English verb to make it past:
    "I speaked", "I writed", "I swimmed" - they are all understood to be past even though they are wrong.
     

    jazyk

    Senior Member
    Brazílie, portugalština
    I would say po and za are the "default" that you're looking for, but better to learn any given verb in its imperfective/perfective set.
     

    Marga H

    Senior Member
    Poland,Polish
    Is there a default prefix, that although wrong most of the time, can be understood as an attempt to form the perfective?

    Kind of like adding "ed" to the end of an English verb to make it past:
    "I speaked", "I writed", "I swimmed" - they are all understood to be past even though they are wrong.
    I was trying yesterday evening and invented a lot of beautiful verbs :D .
    Seriously it is not easy.Each prefix added to "basic" verb will make it perfective but the meaning may be quite different, as you see from previous posts or you will make a new verb.I think that comparing with English it is rather like phrasal verbs; impossible to predict the meaning.
    Regards.
     

    Jana337

    Senior Member
    čeština
    I tried to apply this reasoning to Czech and came to the conclusion that "do" is quite informative about the aspect. But I am not sure it is true for Polish. :)

    Jana
     

    Marga H

    Senior Member
    Poland,Polish
    Dziękuję bardzo Marga. To był swietny.

    Drei
    Glad that I could help a little.
    Just a small correction:
    To był świetny.. needs something else : post, wykład. any noun masculine gender.
    To była świetna.. add any noun feminin gender, for instance rada.
    To było świetne tłumaczenie - neuter gender.
    But the last one you can also say with the general meaning : To było świetne! That was great!
    Pozdrowienia.
     

    Marga H

    Senior Member
    Poland,Polish
    I would say po and za are the "default" that you're looking for, but better to learn any given verb in its imperfective/perfective set.
    :thumbsup: absolutely better!
    wiedzieć ( know ) - powiedzieć ( say )
    robić ( make, do ) - zarobić ( earn )
    stać ( stand ) - dostać ( receive )
    Regards.
     

    Thomas1

    Senior Member
    polszczyzna warszawska
    I am really not sure if perfective/imperfective aspects depend so much on prepositions you tack on to the beginning of a word, at least not in all cases.

    If your verb ends in –wać you maybe sure it implies imperfective action. As far as –ać ending is concerned it’s a little bit different my supposition is that verbs ending in –ać are imperfective when without any prefix and perfective when a prefix is added, let’s take an example:
    Imperfective forms:
    pisał
    pisywać
    pisywał
    zapisywał
    wypisywał
    przepisywał
    odpisywał
    podpisywał
    wpisywał
    wypisywał
    dopisywał

    Perfective ones:
    zapisał
    wypisał
    przepisał
    odpisał
    podpisał
    wpisał
    wypisał
    dopisał

    It is not hard to see that almost all the imperfective forms are derivatives of –wać form. I don’t agree that there are only few verbs in Polish with this ending.

    There are also verbs that express multiple actions by taking on an ending –ać and change their core. An example of such a verb is jeść.
    jeść
    Perfective forms:
    zjadł
    objadł
    podjadł
    wyjadł
    przejadł

    Imperfective forms:
    jadł
    jadać
    zjadał
    przejadał
    objadał
    wyjadał
    przejadał

    Moreover, single verbs (czasowniki jednokrotne) are the ones that express perfective aspects whereas multiple verbs (czasowniki wielokrotne) express imperfective aspects. In conclusion what you really need to do when determining if a verb is perfective or not is to see what its base form is and then, depending on the type of the base form, look at whether it has a prefix or not.


    Tom
     
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