last year, this year, next year

Dymn

Senior Member
Does your language have specific words for these concepts or does it have to use periphrases? For example Mandarin does the former:

last year - 去年 qùnián
this year - 今年 jīnnián
next year - 明年 míngnián

Where 年 obviously means "year". The words for "this year" and "next year" are parallel with "today" (今天 jīntiān) and "tomorrow" (明天 míngtiān). "Yesterday" is however 昨天 zuótiān, but apparently there's also 昨年 zuónián which is a literary word for "last year" and would make the system fully symmetrical :)

Catalan has the word enguany for "this year" which is used just as often as the analytic alternative aquest any, with the latter actually being rare in some regions and regarded as a Spanish influence. In Spanish there's also hogaño with the same meaning, but it is totally literary. Both words come from Latin hŏc anno, "this year", in Catalan with influence from the preposition en "in". Both languages lack a word for the past and next year.

How about yours? Thanks ;)
 
  • AndrasBP

    Senior Member
    Hungarian
    In Hungarian, we have specific words for all three, and none of them are derived from the word "year":

    év = year

    tavaly = last year (related to távol = far)
    idén = this year (from idő = time)
    jövőre = next year (from jövő = future, derived from the verb jön = come)
     

    apmoy70

    Senior Member
    Greek
    Greek:

    Last year: «Πέρυσι» [ˈpe.ɾi.si] or colloquially «πέρσι» [ˈper.si] (adv.) < Classical adv. «πέρυσι(ν)» pérusi(n), Doric «πέρυτι» pérutĭ (PIE *per-ut-i- last year cf Skt. परुत् (parut), last year, Arm. հերու (heru), Proto-Germanic *ferudi > Ger. fert, Swe. i fjol, D. i fjor).

    This year: «Εφέτος» [eˈfe.tɔs] & colloquial aphetism «φέτος» [ˈfe.tɔs] (adv.) < Classical set phrase «ἐπ' ἔτος» ĕp' étŏs --> in this year; in Byzantine Greek the apocopic «ἐπ-» was aspirated and became «ἐφ-», contaminated with similar set expressions from ancient Greek: «ἐφ' ἡμέραν» ĕpʰ' hēméran, «ἐφ' ὅσον» ĕpʰ' hósŏn --> provided, as long as etc).

    Next year: Periphrasis «του χρόνου» [tu ˈxrɔ.nu] --> lit. of the year an idiomatic expression with the meaning of next year, eg: «Θα κόψω το τσιγάρο του χρόνου» [θa ˈkɔ.p͜sɔ tɔ ʦ͜iˈɣa.ɾɔ tu ˈxrɔ.nu] --> next year, I'll quit smoking
     

    Sardokan1.0

    Senior Member
    Sardu / Italianu
    Sardinian :

    last year -> s'annu passadu (the past year) / hoc annu passadu (this past year)
    this year -> hoc annu (this year)
    next year -> hoc annu qui 'ènit (this year that comes)

    Italian

    last year -> l'anno scorso / lo scorso anno / l'anno passato (dialectal)
    this year -> quest'anno
    next year -> l'anno prossimo / il prossimo anno
     
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    AndrasBP

    Senior Member
    Hungarian
    In Lithuanian, there's a specific word for "last year", but not the other two:

    pernai = last year (seems to have Greek, Germanic and various Indo-Iranian cognates)
    šiais metais = this year (instrumental case of "šie metai", a plural form)
    kitais metais = next year (instrumental case of "kiti metai", plural)
     

    Dymn

    Senior Member
    Sardinian :

    last year -> s'annu passadu (the past year) / hoc annu passadu (this past year)
    this year -> hoc annu (this year)
    next year -> hoc annu qui 'ènit (this year that comes)
    Just to complete Catalan and Spanish, it is similar to Sardinian:

    Catalan:
    last year - l'any passat
    this year - enguany or aquest any
    next year - l'any vinent or l'any que ve

    Spanish:
    last year - el año pasado
    this year - este año
    next year - el año que viene
     

    fdb

    Senior Member
    French (France)
    French antan “last year”, from Latin ante annum. In French it is now rare, but well-known thanks to Villon’s verse “Mais où sont les neiges d'antan?”.

    The English poet D.G. Rossetti coined the word “yesteryear” in his 1870 translation of Villon (“But where are the snows of yester-year?”).
     

    bibax

    Senior Member
    Czech (Prague)
    Czech:

    besides the literal equivalents ([in] last/this/next year) we have:

    last year = loni from Protoslavic *ol-n-, related to Latin ōl-im (= once long ago) and arch. ol-le/ol-lus (= ille = that);

    this year = letos < léto (= summer, also year) + obs. (= this), cf. dnes (= today) and Russian сей (= this), сейчас (= now), сегодня (= today);

    next year = Ø;

    loni and letos are temporal adverbs, not nouns;
     

    apmoy70

    Senior Member
    Greek
    In German:
    last year - voriges/letztes Jahr
    this year - dieses Jahr (or heuer in Austria & Bavaria)
    next year - nächstes Jahr

    When was "fert" in use meaning "last year"?
    According to Wiktionary it's Frühneuhochdeutsch (Early New High German):
    Adverb[edit]
    fert

    1. (archaic) last year quotations ▲
      • 1529, Martin Luther, Das Große Katechismus, "Das dritte Gebot":
        ...und wenn das jar umb ist, können sie hewer so viel als fert.
        ...and when the year is ended, they know as much this year as last year.
     

    momai

    Senior Member
    Arabic - Syria
    Classical Arabic had at least 3 words for the word year(thses which I know of), namely سنة sana-ton, عام 'aam-on and حول Hawl-on.
    For last year there is the colloquial word 3imnawal عمنول( a contraction of 3aamon Awal lit. first year). In Modern Arabic, the most common expression is السنة الماضية lit. the passing year.
    This year is هذه السنة, which means exactly the same as the English counterpart.
    Next year is السنة القادمة lit. the coming year.
     

    El Carmo

    New Member
    Brasil - Português
    Does your language have specific words for these concepts or does it have to use periphrases? For example Mandarin does the former:

    last year - 去年 qùnián
    this year - 今年 jīnnián
    next year - 明年 míngnián

    Where 年 obviously means "year". The words for "this year" and "next year" are parallel with "today" (今天 jīntiān) and "tomorrow" (明天 míngtiān). "Yesterday" is however 昨天 zuótiān, but apparently there's also 昨年 zuónián which is a literary word for "last year" and would make the system fully symmetrical :)

    Catalan has the word enguany for "this year" which is used just as often as the analytic alternative aquest any, with the latter actually being rare in some regions and regarded as a Spanish influence. In Spanish there's also hogaño with the same meaning, but it is totally literary. Both words come from Latin hŏc anno, "this year", in Catalan with influence from the preposition en "in". Both languages lack a word for the past and next year.

    How about yours? Thanks ;)
    Yes, in portuguese we have ogano from latim hoc anno
     

    spindlemoss

    Senior Member
    Welsh
    The word for "year" in Welsh is blwyddyn (or blynedd after numbers great than one).

    y llynedd "last year" - perhaps a reformation including the oblique case of blwyddyn cf. blynedd above

    eleni "this year" - e- "this" is related to the he- in heddiw "today" and -leni to blwyddyn, blynedd again

    y flwyddyn nesaf "next year" - literally "the next year"

    The word for "year" is odd in Welsh in both its form and mutations for some reason. We also have the word blwydd which is a "year of age".
     

    oveka

    Senior Member
    Ukraine, Ukrainian
    Ukrainian:
    last year - давномину́лий рік(1890...), позамину́лий рік(2016), мину́лий (дотепе́рішній) рік (2017)
    this year - цей, пото́чний, біжу́чий рік (2018)
    next year - рік,що настає́ (надхо́дить) (2019); насту́пний, надхо́жий, майбу́тній, прийду́щий рік (2019); прийде́шній рік (2019...)
     

    merquiades

    Senior Member
    English (US Northeast)
    Nowadays may contrast with yesteryear like Hogaño... antaño but it's rather highfalutin. They do not refer to precise moments or days in the past though.

    Autrefois exists in French with the meaning back then.
     

    nimak

    Senior Member
    Macedonian
    Macedonian

    There are specific words, adverbs:

    the year before the last year - оломнани [olomnani]; оломлани [olomlani]; преклани [preklani]
    last year - лани [lani]
    this year - годинава [godinava]
    next year - вгодина [vgodina]

    But in some context there also can be used:

    the year before the last year - предминатата година [predminatata godina]
    last year - минатата година [minatata godina]
    this year - оваа година [ovaa godina]
    next year - идната година [idnata godina]

    година [godina] means year
     
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