likewise / moreover / besides / furthermore

Discussion in 'French-English Vocabulary / Vocabulaire Français-Anglais' started by [Marc], Jun 12, 2007.

  1. [Marc] Senior Member

    French France
    Hi,

    Are there differences between these words ? I mean, in terms of use and meaning...
    likewise,
    moreover
    furthermore
    beyond
    besides
    additionally

    Thanks alot :)

    Marc
     
  2. alisonp Senior Member

    London
    English - UK
    Given that the general theory is that if two words meant exactly the same then one of them would eventually become redundant, then yes :). But furthermore, besides and moreover are pretty close.
     
  3. [Marc] Senior Member

    French France
    Thanks alison :)
     
  4. jcrow046 Member

    canada
    hello,
    I would tend to disagree. Though all are words used for the conjunction of thoughts, and thus are similar in scope, each word has a particularity that should be observed by the vigilant writer (or reader for that matter). The exact meaning can be derived from the root of the words, eg, further-more - here 'further' implies to delve with greater profundity, (not to be confused with farther, which is a measure of distance) Thus, furthermore may be used when the second statement complicates or exacts or illuminates the first statement with more precise (more profound) information.
    like-wise: here 'like' implies that two statements point to similar conclusions, but are not so closely related as those which would be conjoined with furthermore. ex. John drank some water; likewise, billy took off his shirt. They were both hot. It must have been 100 degrees. Here, furthermore would not do. synonym: similarly.
    besides - (beside or aside) this word is difficult to use well, and is a sign of mastery. In non-fiction, it may be used when the author wishes to add to an argument using a statement that does not fit with the tone of the article or one that cannot be justified with the same rigor as the rest of his argument. For instance, if the author wishes to make a quib in an otherwise scientific or professional paper, "george bush is evil because..... ;and besides, he's from texas. " This is of course a terrible example, but great authors have a delightful ability to appreciate impertinent, common sensical or even ironical details without in any way besmirching their argument or discrediting themselves. This is why, as Socrates might say, we must beware of rhetoric! (Again, in such cases, 'furthermore' or 'likewise' or 'moreover' would not do.)
     
  5. Peko New Member

    Chinese
    Hi what about the difference between 'furthermore' and 'on top of that'?
    Thank you!
     
  6. Keith Bradford

    Keith Bradford Senior Member

    Brittany, NW France
    English (Midlands UK)
    Furthermore is the formal written version of on top of that which is colloquial and/or spoken.
     
  7. Peko New Member

    Chinese
    Thank you!:)
     
  8. gcv New Member

    English

    Some of this a bit misleading. You accurately describe "furthermore," but "likewise" and "besides" actually have different connotations than you have given. You cannot say, as you argue, "John drank some water; likewise, Billy took off his shirt." The actions (and the results of the actions) are entirely different, even if the cause (the heat) is the same. You CAN say, "No one would ever forget John's pranks. His younger sister's valedictorian speech was likewise remembered many years after she graduated." The result is the same--being remembered--even if the cause and the action are not.

    'Besides' IS a difficult word to use well. You probably should never use it in formal writing, although it is fine in speaking. 'Besides' indicates a thought not directly related to your main point. For this reason, 'besides" tends to weaken arguments, unless used in an obviously humorous/ironic way. The above example, "and besides, he's from Texas," has nothing to do with proving George Bush was evil (we call this a non sequitur). It therefore weakens the speaker's argument. Another example: "She is a bad teacher. Besides, she gave everyone bad grades." Giving out bad grades does not necessarily mean that 'she' is a bad teacher. Instead, it suggests that the speaker is not being objective. So just be careful with it!
     
  9. Ala888 Senior Member

    English/Chinese
    Hello, as a teenager that is a native speaker of english: this is my feeling towards them, and I kind of put them into little groups

    likewise, "you are going make a similar point, that ressembles the last point that you made"

    All these mean the same thing basically
    moreover "your adding on top of something, like over kill"
    furthermore "same thing as moreover"
    beyond
    additionally

    besides: I disagree with gcv, although it is not formal, it is very rare for a english native to even pick this up, it can be used formally too!
    It means, kind of like your adding a new point that wasnt there before but is related.

    >why should you go to the doctor
    >because your sick
    >besides, its free
    another different point, but they are still some what related

     

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