They are a little bit tricky;I would say: musisz powiedzieć
powiedzieć - say
mówić - speak, talk
Interesting, but Jana who pointed this problem out is familiar with aspects!!! I don't think it's matter of Polish grammar, rather matter of semantics. Heretofore I translated both "říci" and "říkat" as "powiedzieć". But now I see it was'nt absolutely correct. My dictionary says:...
It is problem of polish grammar.I will try to explain clearly.
Mówić and powiedzieć are 2 infinitive forms of one verb (both mean to say,to tell or to speak ,depends on the context)
Most polish verbs have 2 forms of infinitive: forma niedokonana (mówić) imperfective aspect,incompleted or repeated action and forma dokonana (powiedzieć) perfective aspect,completed action.Usually they are quite similar.
I did not say that this is only the matter of context and I don’t think that Polish grammar is a problem either. I said that the context is the key thing here which doesn’t mean it’s the only thing here. As a matter of fact, I would say that the grammatical issue of perfectiveness/ imperfectiveness and the semantical one— the context are strongly intertwined. If you change the context you change the aspect on a number of occasions as well.Marga H said:I don't agree with Thomas that is only the matter of context.It is problem of polish grammar.I will try to explain clearly.
It’s not the posfix it’s the infix that makes the verb imperfective.Marga H said:Sometimes the ending differ:
dawać - dać (to give)
wygrywać - wygrać (to win)
I don't quite know how they work in terms of reality but according to the criteria I can make out from your comment wymówić would be the real perfective counterpart of mówić.werr said:říkat = mówić
říci = powiedzieć
So, it really seems to work as aspectual pair. But I don't think it's real aspectual pair since it is'nt cognate.
I suppose it is an especially complicated topic because of a the great number of close meaning words.Also in English:say,speak,tell,talk -it is not easy
tofor a foreign student! (or you could say, "for foreign students") We have even more verbs which are similar and and whose nuances are difficult to catch their nuances:mówić/powiedzieć,rozmawiać/porozmawiać,wypowiadać się/wypowiedzieć się,rzec(the old one)gadać(familiar),pogadać.
I see from your post that it is the same thing in Czech language.