Macedonian: -mina/ina ending

cr00mz

Senior Member
Swedish
Hello

I was wondering what the -mina/ina ending to some words does.

Is it a -mina ending or a -ina ending?

Two words that I have noticed are kolkumina and golemina.

first question: are these two words in the same category? Why I ask is that golem means something, kolkum doesn't. Is it a coincidence that they both end with ina? or is there some grammatical to it that you can't have 2 Ms next to each other, thus making it golemina? (might sound a bit confusing)

Second question: can this ending be put on other words? (all words?), and does these type of words have a name, like noun, verb, adjective etc. ?
 
  • Duya

    Senior Member
    Whatever
    I can tell you from BCS perspective; it probably applies to Macedonian as well.

    Suffix -ina makes a noun out of an adjective, denoting a quality: velik:veličina, koliki:količina, blizak:blizina, dalek:daljina, jak:jačina. It corresponds with English -ity or -ness. Just as in English, our suffixes are seldom universally productive, thus the relationships have to be memorized. For counterexample, we have dobar:dobrota, snažan:snaga, spor:sporost.

    I presume Macedonian kolkumina derives from adverb (?) kolku, and that -m- is just sort of epenthetic, but a native speaker will tell you better.
     

    Vulcho

    Member
    Bulgarian
    These are two different endings.
    -mina signifies number of people, for example колкумина (how many people), петмина (five people),седуммина (seven people), многумина (many people), etc.
    -ina is a suffix for noun creation, like -ness in English, for example големина ("bigness" = size), здравина (toughness), должина ("longness" = length) etc.

    (I hope all these words I gave as examples do exist)
     

    iobyo

    Senior Member
    Macedonian
    The other suffix, -мина, is in a special category. It's similar to the 'animacy' concept in some other languages; i.e. it specifically refers to human males or a mixed-gender group:

    • Шест жени ('six women'), but never *шестмина жени;
    • Шестмина мажи ('six men');
    • Шестмина работници ('six workers').

    Numbers without the -мина suffix are used equally:
    • Седуммина студенти
    • Седум студенти

    Syntactically, these forms are only used consistently without a noun, e.g. осуммина протестираа пред зградата ('six [people] protested in front of the building') is equal to осуммина студенти протестираа and осум студенти протестираа, but you can't say *осум протестираа.

    From two to four there's a different suffix: двајца, тројца, четворица. From five upwards: петмина, шестмина, седуммина, etc.
     

    cr00mz

    Senior Member
    Swedish
    In your protest example, would it change the meaning if you swapped осуммина for осум луѓе/човеци?
     

    Christo Tamarin

    Senior Member
    Bulgarian
    In Bulgarian/Macedonian, the compound suffix -мина/-mina is a merge or contamination of the suffix -ина/-ina and the old dual instrumental ending -(и)ма/-(i)ma.

    Having applied the old dual instrumental ending -(и)ма/-(i)ma, we get двама/трима/четирима/.. exclusively for animated masculine nouns.

    For the numbers 7 (sedem) and 8 (osem), ending in m, a dissimilation occurs: седмина/sedmina, осмина/osmina instead of sedmima/osmima.

    Next, -ina can be applied to the other numbers, too.

    In Standard Bulgarian, двамина/dvamina is the same as the simpler form двама/dvama, and the latter form is prefered.

    On the other hand, for bigger numbers, the forms like деветина, десетина, стотина (devetina, desetina, stotina) mean about 9/10/100 and can be applied to all nouns.

    Thus, we have in Standard Bulgarian десетина/desetina, meaning about 10 and applied to all nouns, and десетима/desetima, meaning exactly 10 and applied to animated masculine nouns only.

    Upon dialects, both endings can simply be mixed.

    And also, these endings have migrated from numbers to quantative pronominals.
     
    Last edited:
    Top