Macedonian Pluperfect tense

Arath

Senior Member
Bulgarian
I've read in a number of places that the Pluperfect tense in Macedonian (бев читал) isn't really used much. How often is it used? In what circumstances is it used? If it is not used, which tense is it substituted by? By the има-construction (имав читано)?

How do you say in Macedonian the following sentences:

Станах, когато телефонът звънна (I got up when the phone rang = the phone rang and then I got up).
Бях си легнал, когато телефонът звънна (I had gone to bed when the phone rang = I went to bed and then the phone rang).
Филмът вече беше започнал, когато пристигнахме в киното (The film had already begun by the time we got to the cinema).
До 2005 той беше ходил до Африка пет пъти (By 2005 he had visited Africa five times).
Ако беше започнал по-рано, нямаше да закъснееш (If you had started out earlier, you wouldn't have been so late).
Поне да се беше извинил (You could have at least apologized).
 
  • Gnoj

    Senior Member
    Macedonian
    I've seen it used in literature and poetry, but no one seems to use it in every-day speech. It even seems to be "dead" nowadays. So you're right, it's used the има-construction instead.
    There is however a third form that is similar and closely related to this pluperperfect tense:
    Той е разплакалият се = Тој е расплачениот => Той се беше разплакал = Тој беше расплачен = Тој се имаше расплачено

    Just like:
    He has gone = Той е заминал = Тој има заминато
    He is gone = Той е заминал = Тој е заминат

    Станав кога заѕвона телефонот
    Си имав легнато кога заѕвона телефонот / Си бев легнал кога заѕвона телефонот / Бев легнат кога заѕвона телефонот
    Филмот веќе имаше (за)почнато кога пристигнавме во киното / Филмот веќе беше (за)почнал кога пристигнавме во киното / Филмот веќе беше (за)почнат кога пристигнавме во киното
    До 2005 тој имаше отидено пет пати до Африка / До 2005 тој беше отишол пет пати до Африка*
    Ако имаше (за)почнато порано, немаше да задоцниш / Ако беше (за)почнал порано, немаше да задоцниш / Ако беше (за)почнат порано, немаше да задоцниш
    Барем да се извинеше

    *It would be illogical to say "беше отиден пати" because in order to say that someone is "отиден", they must be at the place they have gone to. So there is difference between "having been gone" and "being still gone".
     
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    Arath

    Senior Member
    Bulgarian
    Ако (за)почнеше порано, немаше да задоцниш. / Ако беше (за)почнал порано, немаше да задоцниш / Ако беше (за)почнат порано, немаше да задоцниш

    In Bulgarian, however, there is a difference between "ако започнеше" and "ако беше започнал". Consider the sentence:

    Ако чашата падне, ще се счупи (If the glass falls, it will break).

    This sentence says what will happen if the condition is fulfilled. However, it doesn't say whether the condition is or will be fulfilled. We don't know if the glass will fall or not and we don't know whether it is broken or not.

    When we translate this sentence into the past, we get:

    Ако чашатa
    паднеше, щеше да се счупи (If the glass fell, it would break).

    We don't know if the glass fell or not, nor whether it broke or not. That's not the purpose of this sentence. It simply explains what would happen if the condition was true.

    Ако чашатa беше паднала, щеше да счупи (If the glass had fallen, it would have broken, but it didn't).

    In this case, we know that the glass didn't fall and that it didn't break.

    So, in Bulgarian:

    Ако започнеше по-рано, нямаше да закъснееш
    . - We don't know whether you began earlier or not, nor whether you were late or not.

    Ако беше започнал по-рано, нямаше да закъснееш. - You didn't begin on time and you were late.
     
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    Gnoj

    Senior Member
    Macedonian
    In Bulgarian, however, there is a difference between "ако започнеше" and "ако беше започнал".
    Of course, that difference is valid for Macedonian as well, I made a mistake earlier. So not "ако започнеше", but "ако имаше започнато". I've corrected it.
     
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