Good question re: anglophone usage. I agree that a make-up test is for someone who couldn't take it with the rest of the class. If a student fails a test and is given a second chance, she would retake the test.In my experience, a "make-up test" is a test given to a student who (because of illness, family travel, etc.) was not able to be present when the test was originally administered.
Do other anglophones use "make-up test" to refer to a second chance to be tested on something after you've failed once, as in post #1, above??
Does French differentiate between these two scenarios?