malnom (badname) for demonym

Dymn

Senior Member
Hi,

A demonym is a name that identifies the people of a given place. For example French for people who are from France.

In Catalan, a malnom (literally, "badname") is an unofficial and colloquial name, which may be offensive, even if sometimes it's used in a friendly way.

Some examples of what I mean to begin:

Catalan:
Barcelona: pixapí ("pine-pisser"), quemaco (from que maco "so nice", what Barcelonians are supposed to say when they encounter something rural after leaving their urbanite atmosphere)
Palma de Mallorca: llonguet (a type of small piece of bread)
Tarragona: pelacanyes ("reed-peeler", a very poor person)
Reus: ganxet
Aragon: manyo
France: gavatxo
USA: ianqui

Spanish:
Aragon: maño, mañico (the Aragonese call it to people from Zaragoza, the capital)
Catalonia: polaco ("Polish")
France: gabacho
USA: yanqui

How about your languages?
 
  • Gavril

    Senior Member
    English, USA
    Some may disagree with me, but if we understand demonym to mean the noun associated with a group of people ("Englishman/-woman"), rather than the adjective ("English"), then I would say there is a strong tendency for English demonyms in general to be more marked (and therefore more sensitive/potentially offensive) than an adjective-noun combination (e.g. "English person").

    For example, although "the French" is not automatically a badname/malnom, it feels less neutral to me than the phrase "French people". The two phrases are not fully synonymous, either (e.g. you might see "the French" in a general statement about the people of France, but it would be unusual to use it about a specific group of French people you just met).

    This probably has something to do with the fact that substantive adjectives are not a normal feature of English (compare Spanish un joven vs. Eng. a young person): in English, there is often a stronger-than-normal "charge" associated with the substantivization of an adjective, or with the designation of a noun as the counterpart of an adjective ("Polish" : "Pole", "Spanish" : "Spaniard", etc.).
     
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    ilocas2

    Banned
    Czech
    I'm interested what "badnames" have Tibetans for Chinese people. Hopefully one day we will have active Tibetan members here on WR. :)
     

    Messquito

    Senior Member
    Chinese - Taiwan 中文 Taiwanese Hokkien 臺語
    In Taiwan, at this time what I can think of is 天龍人 (Sky Dragon men)
    The term first appeared in the manga/anime One Piece to refer to a group of people who are entitled to privileged and take them for granted.
    And after that, people started to call the capital dwellers (Taipei) 天龍人, and those who are from the richest districts in Taipei, are called 天龍城人(Sky Dragon Castle Men).

    And as there is an ongoing tension between Taiwan and China, derogatory or non-derogatory terms are created.

    Here are some for Chinese people:
    外省人:people from outside the province (can also be used on Taiwanese people who identify themselves as Chinese or those whose family came from China very late in the history and is pro-union)
    大陸人:continent-ians or mainlanders
    死二六:means 死阿陸 damn continent-ians, very derogatory.
    支那人:China men. 支那 is just a transliteration of China(or チナ from Japanese), but Chinese people think of it as highly derogatory anyway.
    內地人:inlanders, very not politically correct.
    對岸人:people from the opposite shore.
    強國人:strong country people.
    阿共:little communists (of course they are not anymore).

    And here are some for Taiwanese people:
    台巴子:Taiwan hillbillies.
    鬼島人:ghost-islanders

    In China, they call Japanese 日本鬼子 (Japanese, ghosts), or 島國人 (islanders)

    And there is a very derogatory term for Koreans that kind of gained popularity after some news about Koreans cheating on sports event went all over the TVs: 韓國狗(Korean dogs) or 韓狗人(Dog-reans)
     

    ger4

    Senior Member
    German
    In German, I can think of a few regional expressions. They are a all bit stereotypical but perhaps still worth mentioning (plural forms):
    - Bavarians sometimes call North Germans Saupreißen < Saupreußen < Sau 'sow' + Preußen 'Prussians'
    - Austrians tend to call (North) Germans Piefkes (apparently derived from a Polish family name, not sure why)
    - North Germans occasionally call Bavarians Barzis (simply a shortened form)
    - North Germans may be called Fischköpfe 'fish heads' by people from other regions of the country
    - West Germans often call East Germans Ossis < Ostdeutsche 'East Germans'
    - Likewise, East Germans tend to call West Germans Wessis < Westdeutsche 'West Germans' - but there is a more derogatory term as well: Besserwessis < 'better West Germans' which sounds quite similar to Besserwisser 'know-it-all'. It was often used in the first years after reunification...

    Apart from that, Americans are sometimes called Amis - just a shortened form, sounding quite friendly - or Yankees - sounding less friendly...
    Catalonia: polaco ("Polish")
    That's interesting... (Is it possible to explain the origin of this term?)
     

    Karton Realista

    Senior Member
    Polish - Poland
    In Poland "badnames" are widely used. Examples:
    - kacapy, ruskie (for Russians)
    - pepiczki/pepicy (for Czechs)
    - szwaby (for Germans)
    - ciapaci/ciapate (spotted, for Middle Eastern people)
    - czarnuchy (for Blacks)
    - mośki (for Jews)
    - kitajce (for Chinese)
    - żabojady (frog-eaters, for French)
    - angole (for English)
    - amerykańce, jankesi (for Americans)
    - polaczki (for ourselves)
    That's interesting... (Is it possible to explain the origin of this term?)
    It is said that Catalan sounds so foreign to Spaniards that it could be as well Polish.
    Austrians tend to call (North) Germans Piefkes (apparently derived from a Polish family name, not sure why)
    Probably not, I can't figure out what would that name be.
     
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    Dymn

    Senior Member
    That's interesting... (Is it possible to explain the origin of this term?)
    It is said that Catalan sounds so foreign to Spaniards that it could be as well Polish.
    That's what I thought first, but there seem to be different theories:
    • In February 1939 the Francoist troops invaded Catalonia, and then in September 1939 the Nazis did so with Poland.
    • A Polish battalion of mercenaries came to Catalonia in the 17th century in the War of Spanish Succession to fight against the Philipists.
    • In the 18th century polacos where the name the more rowdy part of the Madrid theatres received, and in the 19th century this was applied to the Catalan deputies who went to Madrid to require better conditions for Catalonia.
    • In the 17th century there was a thriving trade between Poland and the Iberian Peninsula. Catalan ships would transport the freight and the Polish traders to the Andalusian harbours. There, the Polish word czarny "black" would be adapted into Catalan as xarnego, which is a derogatory term for Spanish-speaking people in Catalonia. At the same time, Andalusians would call polaco to everyone who came from those ships.
    Some links (in Spanish: 1, 2, 3; in Catalan: 1, 2)

    I was also told that Valencians were called checoslovacos "Czechoslovaks" in the military service during Francoism, being to the south of Catalonia and sharing linguistic and cultural traits. But I don't know up to which point is true.
     

    ger4

    Senior Member
    German
    Probably not, I can't figure out what would that name be.
    Piwka, according to Wikipedia (but there are several theories):
    The Austrian ethnic slur for a German is Piefke. Like its Bavarian counterpart Saupreiß (literally: sow-Prussian) the term Piefke historically characterized the people of Prussia only. Its exact origin is unclear, but it was meant to be derogatory most notably because of the term's Polish roots: Referring to every Prussian as Piefke, which is a typical example of a Germanized Polish family name (Piwka),[17] suggested that all Prussians were merely Germanized Poles. The term increased in usage during the 19th century because of the popularity of the Prussian composer Johann Gottfried Piefke, who composed some of the most iconic German military marches, such as Preußens Gloria or the Königgrätzer Marsch. Since Prussia and its eastern territories ceased to exist, the term now refers to the cliché of a pompous (Protestant northern) German in general and a Berliner in particular.[source]
    Around 13% of all German surnames are thought to be of Slavic origin (and in the former 'heartlands' of Prussia - i.e. the north-east of Germany, the proportion is probably higher due to the fact that this region was originally partly Slavic-speaking). - On the other hand, many Austrians have Slavic family names as well...
     
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    ilocas2

    Banned
    Czech
    I was also told that Valencians were called checoslovacos "Czechoslovaks" in the military service during Francoism, being to the south of Catalonia and sharing linguistic and cultural traits. But I don't know up to which point is true.
    I rather guess it has something to do with Czechoslovaks in International Brigades during Spanish Civil War.
     
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    ger4

    Senior Member
    German
    Oh, so ie stands for i actually.
    I should have guessed that the writing convention will be German, not the Polish one...
    Thinking about it now, I wonder why the name is spelled with -ie- in German. Normally, -ie- stands for the long vowel /i:/ but aren't all Polish vowels short?
     

    Frank78

    Senior Member
    German
    - Likewise, East Germans tend to call West Germans Wessis < Westdeutsche 'West Germans' - but there is a more derogatory term as well: Besserwessis < 'better West Germans' which sounds quite similar to Besserwisser 'know-it-all'. It was often used in the first years after reunification...
    Oh that one is much older. It was used by the people of West Berlin to refer to people from West Germany.
     

    apmoy70

    Senior Member
    Greek
    Greek:

    Southern Greeks to Thessalonians: «Χαμουτζής, -τζήδες» [xamuˈʣ͡is] (masc./fem. nom. sing.), [xamuˈʣ͡iðes] (masc./fem. nom. pl.) --> (derog.) Southerners < adv. «χάμω» [ˈxamo] --> to the earth, on the earth, on the ground < Classical adv. «χαμαί» kʰămaí̯ (idem) (PIE *dʰǵʰem- earth cf Skt. क्ष्मा (kṣmā), earth, Hitt. tēkan, Av. zā̊, ToA tkam̥, ToB kem̥, Lat. humus) + MoGr productive suffix -τζής» [-ʣ͡is] appended to words to create a noun, denoting a profession or occupation < Tur. suffix -ci.

    The island of Lesbos to the rest of Greeks: «Γκασμαδία» [ŋ͡gazmaˈði.a] (fem.) or «Κασμαδία» [kazmaˈði.a] (fem.) --> (derog.) the land of the pickaxe < MoGr masc. «γκασμάς» [ŋ͡gazˈmas] & «κασμάς» [kazˈmas] < Tur. kazma, pickaxe.
    The story is that when authorities (60-70 years ago) asked for help from the locals, to construct an airfield, Lesbians brought with them pickaxes, no shovels, no mattocks, no hoes, just pickaxes*

    The island of Kos to the rest of Greeks: «Μποχαλία» [boxaˈli.a] (fem.) probably due to the dialectal «μποχάλι» [boˈxali] (neut.) for the bottle instead of the Standard Greek «μπουκάλι» [buˈkali] (neut.) < Late Lat. baucalis > It. boccali*

    The area of Soufli near the Hebros river, on the Greek-Turkish border is «Γκατζολία» [ɲ͡gaʣ͡oˈli.a] (fem.) --> the land of donkey after the local dialectal name for the donkey, «γκατζόλι» [ɲ͡gaˈʣ͡oli] (neut.) < Late Lat. gazela < Arabic غزال (ġazāl)*

    The inhabitants of Heraclion (the capital city of Crete) have the badname «Σουμπερίτες» [subeˈɾites] (masc. nom. pl.), («Σουμπερίτης» [subeˈɾitis] (masc. nom. sing.)) which is considered highly offensive < infamous Nazi officer who committed numerous atrocities in Crete during WWII, Fritz Schubert (Heraclion was his HQ).

    *Army slang
     

    Karton Realista

    Senior Member
    Polish - Poland
    Thinking about it now, I wonder why the name is spelled with -ie- in German. Normally, -ie- stands for the long vowel /i:/ but aren't all Polish vowels short?
    Yes. Even double i (ii) is not í, it's read kinda like ji (it appears in both singular and plural locative of female words ending in -ia (sing.) and -ie (plur): apatia - apatii; Maria - Marii; lilia, lilie- lilii).
    A lot of changes happen when one language loans a word from another, for example look at how Latin words are completely corrupted in probably every language they exist in.
     

    Delvo

    Senior Member
    American English
    I've seen "frog" for French people a few times as a joke, but I don't think most people would recognize it. In WWII, it was common to call Germans and Japanese "Krauts" and "Japs", but those have fallen out of use since the war ended. One I've seen for Americans is "USAians"; I've seen some people claim it's not meant negatively, but the only plausible excuse they give for it is still an accusation about American arrogance anyway. I also heard "Hebe" or "Hebee" for Jews in a movie about anti-Semitism, but haven't heard it in real life.

    Other than that, I can't think of any in English that are definitely meant negatively by the speakers, rather than that some people take negatively when they hear them... and the supply of the latter is essentially endless because no word is safe from that.
     

    franknagy

    Senior Member
    In Poland "badnames" are widely used. Examples:
    - kacapy, ruskie (for Russians)
    - pepiczki/pepicy (for Czechs)
    - szwaby (for Germans)
    - ciapaci/ciapate (spotted, for Middle Eastern people)
    - czarnuchy (for Blacks)
    - mośki (for Jews)
    - kitajce (for Chinese)
    - żabojady (frog-eaters, for French)
    - angole (for English)
    - amerykańce, jankesi (for Americans)
    - polaczki (for ourselves).
    There Hungarian nicknames correspond to the Polish ones:
    English - Official H. - Historical nickname - lliving nickname
    Russian - orosz - muszka - ruszki
    German - német - burkus (Prussian) - sváb
    Austrian - osztrák - - sógorok (brother's in law)
    Chinese - kínai - ferdeszemű
    French - francia - békazabáló
    American - amerikai - - jenki ; amcsi
    Polish - lengyel - polyák
    Italian - olasz - - digó
     

    HilfswilligerGenosse

    Senior Member
    German, High German
    In German, "badnames" are more or less popular - some can be extremely offensive.

    Friendly-to-offensive:
    • "Ami" for an American
    • "Piefke" in Austria for Germans
    • "Tommy" or "Tommie" for a Brit
    • "Saupreiß" (=Saupreuß=Saupreuße) for anybody north of the Bavarian state border - used in Bavaria
    Offensive:
    • "Franzmann" for a French. 100 years ago or longer, it was neutral, but it is associated with German natioanlism. A part of a song is ".... Wo jeder Deutsche heißet Freund, wo jeder Franzmann heißet Feind!"
    • "Zigeuner" for Sinti and Roma. Normal term until 30-50 years ago, and unexchangeable in some specific terms (Zigeunerschnitzel) or songs (Drei Zigeuner.... or Lustig ist das Zigeunerleben...). Today, you are to say "Sinti und Roma", but never - except satirically - ask for a Sintischnitzel in a restaurant!
    Extremely offensive to outright racist:
    • "Kana(c)ke" for any foreigner, esp. a Turk or somebody presumed to be one. Used in extreme right-wing youth demonstrations and so on, but nowhere else.
     

    franknagy

    Senior Member
    In German, "badnames" are more or less popular - some can be extremely offensive.

    • "Zigeuner" for Sinti and Roma. Normal term until 30-50 years ago, and unexchangeable in some specific terms (Zigeunerschnitzel) or songs (Drei Zigeuner.... or Lustig ist das Zigeunerleben...). Today, you are to say "Sinti und Roma", but never - except satirically - ask for a Sintischnitzel in a restaurant!
    The following fixed expressions cannot be corrected by replacing "cigány" with the "politcally correct" recommeded expression "roma" in the Hungarian word treasure.
    Cigánykereket vet = radschlagen, cigányútra megy = sich verschlucken, cigánypecsenye = Zigeunerschnitzel,
    egy király, egy cigány = ein König und ein Zigeuer = line of not fitting things or persons.
     
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