masdars المصادر

kifaru

Senior Member
English
I am having some trouble with some words and it basically has to do with vowels that do or do not occur between the second and last letter or 3 letter masdars. Heres an example:
I am told this is يفتح "yafatah" but this is يكتب is yaktab. Is there a rule for this?
 
  • suma

    Senior Member
    USA
    English, USA
    I am having some trouble with some words and it basically has to do with vowels that do or do not occur between the second and last letter or 3 letter masdars. Heres an example:
    I am told this is يفتح "yafatah" but this is يكتب is yaktab. Is there a rule for this?
    No it's yafta7(u) and yaktub(u) , leave the "u" off in pause form.
     

    Abu Bishr

    Senior Member
    Afrikaans, South Africa
    Hi everybody

    This rule concerns the vowelling of the 2nd root letter of the perfect and imperfect as indicated by the العين (Ayn) in فعل and يفعل . There are in total six combinations for the vowels on the 2nd root letter in the perfect and imperfect forms of the verb, some of which are more common than others. The combinations are as follows (reading the Arabic examples from right to left):

    (1) a - u like نصَر - ينصُر (nasara - yansuru)
    (2) a - a like فتَح - يفتَح (fataha - yaftahu)
    (3) a - i like ضرَب - يضرِب (daraba - yadribu)
    (4) i - a like فرِح - يفرَح (fariha - yafrahu)
    (5) i - i like حسِب - يحسِب (hasiba - yahsibu) (this verb can also be: i - a)
    (6) u - u like حسُن - يحسُن (hasuna - yahsuna)

    Hans Wehr indicates the vowel in the perfect form by writing out the transliteration of the whole form and the vowel of the imperfect form by means of (u , i & a) for the three vowels: Dammah, Kasrah & Fathah respectively. Thus نصر in the Hans Wehr dictionary is indicated as follows:

    نصر nasara u (& then masdar between brackets), etc.

    Hence, if you are not sure of the vowels you can always check the Hans Wehr dictionary, and the combination that he gives you has to be one of these six.

    Moreover, combination (2) stipulates that the 2nd or 3rd root letter must be one of the six gutturals: أ ه ع ح غ خ in order for the verb to have this combination. If this is not the case then it cannot have the (a - a) combination. This, however, does not mean that if the 2nd or 3rd root letter is a guttural that it will necessarily have this combination. In other words, being a guttural is only a membership requirement.

    Also, of the two combinations (4) & (5), the first one is more common. In addition, combination (6) always refers to qualities & states and not actions, that is, it is always intransitive. The remaining five combinations can be either: transitive or intransitive.

    I hope this clarifies more than it confuses. In the final analysis, students are encouraged to memorize verbs with their respective vowel combinations as well as their masdars e.g. نصَر - ينصُر - نصراً (perf - imperf - infin).

    Also, remember that in combinations (1) & (6) the hamzatul-wasl of the imperative form will be vowelled with a Dammah (u) to match the vowel of the 2nd root letter. As for the remaining four the hamzatul-wasl is vowelled with a Kasrah (i).
     

    kifaru

    Senior Member
    English
    Thank you both. I bought Hans Wehr but made the mistake of buying a poket version with print so small that it hurts my head to read it.

    Abu Bishr
    I hope this clarifies more than it confuses. In the final analysis, students are encouraged to memorize verbs with their respective vowel combinations as well as their masdars e.g. نصَر - ينصُر - نصراً (perf - imperf - infin).
    Your response was very clear and easy to understand as always.
     
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