means <of><to>

Lucy 234

Senior Member
Korean
Hi all,

Is there any difference between "means of" and "means to"? Thank you!

1.The means employed by David to use money to deceive Jane are so hateful.
2. The means of David using money to deceive Jane are so hateful.
 
  • yakor

    Senior Member
    Russian
    The means used by David to deceive Jane are so hateful to me.
    The way, David uses money to deceive Jane, is so disgusting.
    The way by means of which David uses money is too bad.
     

    lingobingo

    Senior Member
    English - England
    1.The means employed by David to use money to deceive Jane are so hateful.
    2. The means of David using money to deceive Jane are so hateful.
    Those are both rather strange sentences, and the second one is not a typical use of “means of”.

    Means of+noun/gerund and means to+infinitive are not really set phrases/constructions. The word means is simply used with whatever preposition is appropriate, according to what’s being said.


    Wearing oilskins is a good means of keeping dry in a storm (= a good way of doing it)
    Letters were once the most common means of communication (= the normal method)
    Women often don’t have the means to defend themselves (= the wherewithal to do that)

    Note that, despite being plural, the words means is normally treated as singular in that we say “a means” of doing something.
     
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