Yes, it could, but there is a slight difference. A figure in this sense is an image. Images can be implied, as in metaphor: she sailed into the room - she's like a ship but this is implied, or they can be explicit, as in simile: she came into the room like a ship in full sail - this time we actually say she's like a ship.
So figuratively is a broader category than metaphorically, because figuratively also embraces simile. However, most people don't go into the matter in such detail, and, in practice, I think the words are interchangeable.