"ih" like in "fit", "ee" like in "feet", "uh" like in "cup", and "ah" like in "father".I do not know how "ih"/"uh"/"ee"/"ah" are realized phonetically, so I'm not sure how to help you.
I think it's best you take a look at the IPA charts of each language, and there are probably audio examples for each vowel (in Wikipedia for instance, maybe on other sites as well).
Is it the same for Yiddish? What English words should I use as examples of those sounds?Hebrew doesn't have long vowels, so there's only /i/ and /a/.
/i/ is correctly pronounced as [ i ] (English ee, without the length), but very often it tends to be laxer, [ɪ] (English ih).
/a/ is correctly pronounced as [a] (French a, this sound barely exists in English), but very often it tends to be laxer, as [ʌ] (English uh) or even [ɔ] especially in unstressed environment. Nasalization in stressed syllable is also somewhat frequent.
With only three qualites being distinguished (/a/, /i/, /u/ plus their long counterparts), there is of course a great deal of variation, both allophonic and free, even within a dialect.As for Arabic, the most standard pronunciation of short i is like in the English word "bin" and of long i like in the English word "bean"; the long and short a varies a lot more based on the native dialect of the speaker, there isn't a real standard.