Newly consolidated independent states took root with...

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Senior Member
Italia, italiano
I would like to hear your opinions about the sentence below. It is taken from The Human Web – A Bird's-Eye View of World History (J.R. McNeill and William H. McNeill), page 96.
The topic are rice paddies which spread in Asia during the year 200-1000 A.D., as the effect of the increased interaction of different peoples. The sentence is:

"Wherever rice cultivation established itself at greater remove from the Indian and Chinese core areas, newly consolidated independent states took root with the rice plants."

I have some doubts about the second part of the sentence. Do you think it means that:
1. More independent states (in addition to India and China) started to grow rice?
2. Independent states were born, while (and so perhaps because) rice cultivation spread?

Thank you a lot!
Last edited:
  • Egmont

    Senior Member
    English - U.S.
    Your second interpretation is correct.

    The main clause of this sentence is that "(newly independent) states took root." It is the states that took root here, not the rice. The first part of the sentence and its last four words relate their emergence to the spread of rice cultivation.
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