nightmare, daydream

Outsider

Senior Member
Portuguese (Portugal)
Inspired by my own recent thread about the words "sleep" and "dream", I thought I'd ask what are the words for "nightmare" and "daydream" (either nouns or verbs) in everyone's language. Do they have a literal meaning?

Thanks.


In Portuguese:

Nightmare: pesadelo, from pesado, heavy (though pesadelo itself doesn't mean anything literally). There is no specific verb; we just say "to have a nightmare".

To daydream: sonhar acordado, literally "to dream awake". There is no specific noun.
 
  • Etcetera

    Senior Member
    Russian, Russia (St Petersburg)
    Saludos Outsider.:)

    The Russian equivalents of these words would be the following:
    nightmare - кошмар.
    daydream - грёза (or plural - грёзы, it's used oftener) or сон наяву.
     

    Jana337

    Senior Member
    čeština
    Czech:
    nightmare - noční můra (surprisingly a literal translation),
    to daydream - "snít s otevřenýma očima" (to dream with open eyes)
     

    elpoderoso

    Senior Member
    English
    The English term Nightmare refers to the Mare or Mara (various similar words in the Germanic languages) which is a kind of demon which sits on the victim at night.
    Outsider, I don't know, but maybe this sitting on the victim bears a relation to pesadelo and pesadilla.
     

    betulina

    Senior Member
    català - Catalunya
    Hi! In Catalan we've got:

    nightmare - malson (literally, "badsleep" - curiously, we don't say "malsomni", which would be more logic as it translates "baddream", bearing in mind that we have different words for "sleep" and "dream". I've looked it up at the dictionary and it says that "malson" refers both to a "bad dream" and to a "bad sleep", so it turns out that in this sense we do have the same word for these concepts! :eek: :) However, it is much more used as a "bad dream".)

    The verb here is just "tenir un malson" - to have a nightmare.

    to daydream - som(n)iar despert - the same as in Portuguese.
     

    Frank06

    Senior Member
    Nederlands / Dutch (Belgium)
    Hi,
    Inspired by my own recent thread about the words "sleep" and "dream", I thought I'd ask what are the words for "nightmare" and "daydream" (either nouns or verbs) in everyone's language. Do they have a literal meaning?
    In Dutch:
    - de nachtmerrie: the nightmare
    The Dutch word obviously has the same etymology as the English one, but the word 'mare' got re-interpreted by folk etymology as 'merrie' (=female horse).
    (een nachtmerrie hebben - to have a nightmare)

    - de dagdroom: the day dream
    (dagdromen: to daydream)


    Groetjes,

    Frank
     

    ameana7

    Senior Member
    Turkey, Turkish
    In Turkish

    Nightmare: Kabus, karabasan

    Daydream: Hayal
    To daydream: Hayal kurmak.

    Unfortunately both "kabus and hayal" were borrowed from Arabic, so they haven't a specific meaning for Turkish people.
    On the other hand "Karabasan", which is used for "nightmare", is originally Turkish and it means something like "making black or covering everywhere black".
    Actually it is my translation, it is open to discuss. :)
     

    Lemminkäinen

    Senior Member
    Norwegian (bokmål)
    Norwegian:

    nightmare: mareritt, 'mare ride/race'; apparently it's from the Norse mara, which is, as mentioned, a female demon sitting on people's chest.
    daydream: dagdrøm (bm), dagdraum (nn) - means the same as in English.
     

    robbie_SWE

    Senior Member
    Trilingual: Swedish, Romanian & English
    Romanian:

    nightmare = coşmar
    daydream = reverie

    Swedish:

    nightmare = mardröm
    daydream = dagdröm

    :) robbie
     

    Maja

    Senior Member
    Serbian, Serbia
    In Serbian:

    nightmare - noćna mora (ноћна мора); košmar (кошмар)
    daydream - sanjarenje (сањарење) - maštanje (маштање)

     

    Honour

    Senior Member
    Türkçe, Türkiye
    In Turkish

    Nightmare: Kabus, karabasan

    Daydream: Hayal
    To daydream: Hayal kurmak.

    Unfortunately both "kabus and hayal" were borrowed from Arabic, so they haven't a specific meaning for Turkish people.
    On the other hand "Karabasan", which is used for "nightmare", is originally Turkish and it means something like "making black or covering everywhere black".
    Actually it is my translation, it is open to discuss. :)
    All the definitions are correct for sure in terms of dictionary definition.
    However, in daily life the term karabasan is used to describe the state of human body in which a person is conscious but cannot move.That's a transition state between sleep and awakeness which is not expected to occur under normal circumstances. Afaik, brain technically shuts down (paralyzes intentionally) motor neurons in order to avoid undesired actions during dreaming. In this state, our body is still paralyzed but our conscious is open.
     

    DearPrudence

    Dépêche Mod (AL mod)
    IdF
    French (lower Normandy)
    In French (as you must know)

    a nightmare: un cauchemar
    my dictionary says: from Old French caucher, fouler (tread (I suppose)) & Dutch mare, ghost)
    No idea until today where it came from

    to daydream: dormir éveillé
     

    heidita

    Banned
    Germany (German, English, Spanish)
    In German we have:

    nightmare = Alptraum

    Alp = gespenstisches Wesen (ghost)

    Traum = dream

    Daydream = Tagesträumer, Wolkenschieber

    Tagesträumer

    Tag = day

    Träumer = dreamer

    Wolkenschieber

    Wolke = cloud

    schieber = push
     

    Outsider

    Senior Member
    Portuguese (Portugal)
    a nightmare: un cauchemar
    my dictionary says: from Old French caucher, fouler (tread (I suppose)) & Dutch mare, ghost)
    No idea until today where it came from
    Ah, enfin le français ! Avez-vous noté que plusieurs langues l'ont emprunté leur mot pour « cauchemar » ? :)
     

    ronanpoirier

    Senior Member
    Brazil - Portuguese
    Hungarian:
    Nightmare = Lidércnyomás. It's made my the words "lidérc" meaning "mare" + "nyomás" meaning "impression". My friend just told me the most usual word for it is "rémálom".
    For "daydream" I have found "abrandozás" and "álmodozás". Both have a verb related to it (abrandozni & álmodozni) and both have the sense of "to fantasize"...
     

    Frank06

    Senior Member
    Nederlands / Dutch (Belgium)
    Hi,
    a nightmare: un cauchemar
    my dictionary says: from Old French caucher, fouler (tread (I suppose)) & Dutch mare, ghost). No idea until today where it came from

    1375, cauquemare; 1564, cauchemare; 1677 cauchemar.
    Apparantly it is a Picardian word. The first part comes from cauchier (presser), probably the result of a mix from OFr cauchier and OPic. cauquier, from Lat. calcare.
    The second part has been discussed already.

    Groetjes,
    Frank
     

    Thomas1

    Senior Member
    polszczyzna warszawska
    In Polish we use:
    nightmare –n. koszmar ;
    Daydream –n. marzenie

    As for the verbal form of nightmare we would use :
    v.
    śnić koszmary = to dream nightmares; this is the version we use most frequently (we use the plural)

    mieć koszmary = to have nightmares

    Ah, enfin le français ! Avez-vous noté que plusieurs langues l'ont emprunté leur mot pour « cauchemar » ? :)
    J’inclinerais à penser que nous avons emprounté le koszmar à français.
    Et voilà je viens d'y chercher et mon dictionnaire des emprunts corrobore que koszmar vient de français (couchemar). Je pense que le mot russe aussi vient de français.

    Tom
     

    robbie_SWE

    Senior Member
    Trilingual: Swedish, Romanian & English
    J’inclinerais à penser que nous avons emprounté le koszmar à français.
    Et voilà je viens d'y chercher et mon dictionnaire des emprunts corrobore que koszmar vient de français (couchemar). Je pense que le mot russe aussi vient de français.
    Tom
    Et aussi le mot roumain vient de la langue française!

    :) robbie
     

    elroy

    Imperfect Mod
    US English/Palestinian Arabic bilingual
    Arabic:

    nightmare: كابوس (kaabuus) - simply a word for "nightmare." It may be related to other words with the same root, but it doesn't have another literal meaning that has given rise to "nightmare."

    daydream: حلم يقظة (Hulm yaqadha) - literally "dream of wakefulness"
     

    Outsider

    Senior Member
    Portuguese (Portugal)
    Elroy, noticing the Italian word incubo, I wonder if the Arabic one has anything to do with Latin incubus.
     

    amikama

    a mi modo
    עברית
    Hebrew:

    nightmare = סיוט (siyut) or חלום בלהות (halom balahot, literally "dream of horrors").

    daydream = חלום בהקיץ (halom be-hakits, "dream while awake")
     

    parakseno

    Senior Member
    Romanian, Romania
    Romanian:

    nightmare = coşmar
    daydream = reverie

    Swedish:

    nightmare = mardröm
    daydream = dagdröm

    :) robbie
    Of course, Robbie is right (well, at least the Romanian part, don't know much about the Swedish one, though). I just wanted to add that Romanian also has
    daydream - a visa cu ochii deschişi
    (similar to what Jana said for czech.)
     

    robbie_SWE

    Senior Member
    Trilingual: Swedish, Romanian & English
    Of course, Robbie is right (well, at least the Romanian part, don't know much about the Swedish one, though). I just wanted to add that Romanian also has
    daydream - a visa cu ochii deschişi
    (similar to what Jana said for czech.)
    Yes, and similar to the Italian as Valy822 stated in her post!

    :) robbie
     

    Outsider

    Senior Member
    Portuguese (Portugal)
    In Portuguese, you can also say sonhar de olhos abertos (to dream with one's eyes open).
     

    samanthalee

    Senior Member
    Mandarin, English - [Singapore]
    Hello
    Chinese:
    nightmare:噩梦 or 恶梦 (e meng)
    daydream:白日梦(bai ri meng)
    Regards,
    Anthony
    Daydream in Chinese literally translates to "White Sun dream."

    Nightmare has 2 versions. The more common one 恶梦 (e meng) means "horrible dream."
    The less common one 梦魇 (meng yan) means "nightmare dream". It's usually used to describe horrible experiences rather than to describe actual nighmares.
     

    yasemin

    Senior Member
    Turkey, Turkish
    In Turkish

    Nightmare: Kabus, karabasan

    Daydream: Hayal
    To daydream: Hayal kurmak.

    Unfortunately both "kabus and hayal" were borrowed from Arabic, so they haven't a specific meaning for Turkish people.
    In Turkish you can express a sentence composed of ten words in most European languages by just one word, however it is still a language having a little number of words. So, generally you have to use several words for a term, for example, in english.

    Also in this case, I think that we can try to think of something longer:

    nightmare : kötü düş (lit. bad dream)
    daydream: gündüz düşü (lit. daydream :D )

    Even if the others, kabus and hayal are more common as the words taken during the Ottoman Empire, like many others, these are used widespread as well. I specially like the second. ;)
     

    Marga H

    Senior Member
    Poland,Polish
    In Polish we use:
    nightmare –n. koszmar ;
    Daydream –n. marzenie

    As for the verbal form of nightmare we would use :
    v.
    śnić koszmary = to dream nightmares; this is the version we use most frequently (we use the plural)

    mieć koszmary = to have nightmares




    Tom
    You can also say:
    to daydream - śnić na jawie
     

    imbay

    Member
    Thailand / Thai
    In thai
    Nightmare = ฝันร้าย ( făn ráai )
    Daydream = ฝันกลางวัน ( făn glaang wan )
     

    lazarus1907

    Senior Member
    Spanish, Spain
    In Spanish:

    Nightmare: Pesadilla- Verb: Tener pesadillas
    To daydream: soñar despierto / ensoñar* -Noun: Ensueño,
    But you knew these already for sure, right?

    * Not exactly the same, but close.
    The word íncubo is there, but it is obsolete.
     

    anarandi

    Member
    castellano Argentina
    Hello everyone:

    In Spanish, we say:

    "pesadilla" (noun) = nightmare
    "tener una pesadilla" (verb + object)

    "soñar despierto" (verb + complement) = to daydream, which literally means to dream while you are awake.

    Que sueñen con los angelitos = This is a phrase said to children when they go to bed. It means you wish they have happy dreams and dream of the angels.

    Ana
     

    CatStar

    Senior Member
    English, Ireland
    hey there

    In Irish

    nightmare is tromluí which literally means heavy sleep
    to daydream is bheith ag aislingeacht
    and daydream as a noun is taibhreamh na súl oscailte which literally means dream with eyes open

    Slán libh!

    Cat
     

    Tim~!

    Senior Member
    UK — English
    By amazing coincidence, the first message in my inbox today is a 'word of the day' thing from lernu.net, which is an Esperanto thing. The word for today was sonĝo, which is a dream!

    Much as French has both songer and rêver to mean 'dream', so does Esperanto. Sonĝi is the apparition of pictures and scenes to a sleeping person. When a person is awake, the word is revi, so a daydream or aspiration is a revo.

    A nightmare is a koŝmaro (cf French cauchemar) or either inkubo (cf Latin incubus) or inkubsonĝo.

    Interesting thread.
     

    Outsider

    Senior Member
    Portuguese (Portugal)
    Much as French has both songer and revi to mean 'dream', so Does Esperanto. Son?i is the apparition of pictures and scenes to a sleeping person. When a person is awake, the word is revi, so a daydream or aspiration is a revo.
    Vous vouliez écrire "rêve", n'est-ce pas ? :)
     

    kusurija

    Senior Member
    Lithuania Czech
    Lithuanian:
    nightmare - košmaras
    daydream - dienos sapnas, but we simply say (e.g.): einu ir sapnuoju - I dream while going. Or use Latin: somnolence..
     

    alex.raf

    Member
    Iran/Persian(Farsi)
    Persian:
    Nightmare: (n) Kāboos کابوس - (v) Kāboos didan کابوس دیدن
    Daydream: (n) Rowyā-pardāzi رؤیا پردازی - (v) Rowyā-pardāzi kardan رؤیا پردازی کردن
     
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